Attempting to cause change from within: working within the system.
Attempting to cause change from without: disrupting the system, e.g., protests.
Which succeeds when (if ever)? Why?
When does both being done simultaneously synergistically help each other? When does both being done simultaneously impede each other? What causes the difference?
Probably matters: zero-sum versus positive-sum.
Pessimistic hypothesis: change from without never succeeds, always impedes. We almost suspect conspiracy-theory-style social manipulation for the social forces that cause it to be attempted (often) despite it being counterproductive. Inspired by identity politics driving wedges, causing groups to want to or be willing to hurt each other more.