Start at the origin of (0,0) off the coast of west Africa. For the X coordinate, measure a distance along the equator and construct a great circle perpendicular to the equator. This happens to be a longitude. For the Y coordinate, measure a distance along the prime meridian/180 meridian great circle, then construct a great circle perpendicular to the prime/180 great circle. This is not a line of latitude; latitudes are not great circles. The intersection of the two constructed great circles defines a point. (Use the first point of intersection (of 2), assuming all measurements and great circles had directions, similar to directions on an XY plane.)

Plot some interesting functions. Derive formulae for interesting shapes on the surface of a sphere.

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