When the gun of the A10 Warthog is fired in flight, is there noticeable recoil? Is there danger of the gun causing sufficient deceleration to cause the plane to stall out of flight?

## Sunday, May 29, 2016

### [abzaqhbj] Sorting go 囲碁 marbles

Construct a go 囲碁 set for which it is easy to separate the stones into white and black after the game.

Marbles of slightly different sizes: sort through a sieve which only lets the smaller size pass through. Board would need indentations to prevent placed marbles from moving around. However then stones would not slide easily for the scoring phase of post game.

Magnets.

The stones are on opposite sides of the density of water. Separate by dumping the board contents into a container of water. Messy and impractical.

Mechanical/electronic device which sorts stones dumped into its hopper by color using (very easy) computer vision. Maybe hand cranked.

Thinking outside the box: every stone has opposite colors on both sides, like Othello. Players draw from a common container during the game; there is no need to sort. This causes problems for scoring systems which assume both players start with exactly the same number of stones, counting remaining stones at the end.

Even more lazy: same as current stones, but place them all in a common container. Choosing the right color to play during the game is easy.

### [zmsluwci] Elastic projectile

What material to make a projectile out of best survives the sudden acceleration and heat of being fired out of a gun? Shock resistance. Avoid inelastic deformation, though even elastic deformation into vibrational motion also wastes launch energy.

Previously: densest material is best against air resistance. Suppose we ignore air resistance, maybe shooting in the vacuum of space.

## Friday, May 27, 2016

### [yvldaeyx] Partial compression with clonable state

Store a compressed partial file in two pieces: one containing all the completed output blocks and one containing the compressed incomplete last block.

Devilish details, partially explored:

There does not seem to be enough rope in zlib to do this efficiently. We either need a way to snapshot and restore the internal compression state to roll it back, or for the compression function to leave unconsumed input in the input buffer when it produces output.

If the the first feature, then we do some binary search at the next to last block for the minimum amount of input that produces the next to last output block. I'm not sure where the output of the flush then goes.

We could serialize the final state and write it out as the uncompressed final block, but the unconsumed input serves the same purpose.

### [mkdrqxxe] Time based shuffle

When displaying a collection of objects in random order, e.g., slideshow or musical playlist shuffle, let the randomization be keyed on the time of day. This allows recovering what was shown / played at a point in the past by just recording the time.

### [enygdkgw] Chess glyphs in Unicode

The existence of chess symbols in Unicode simplifies the task of writing chess software: no need to provide piece images. It can also allow the user to customize what character to use for each piece on the board, perhaps even permitting letters (of a native language) instead of figurines, which could helpfully matches move notation.

One slight difficulty is that the chess symbols are available in both black and white (as is necessary because they are drawn slightly differently in order to render properly on a white background), but letters are always just black, so need to be rendered in outline for a white letter on a white background. Also need an outline for black letters on a black background, though maybe avoid coloring dark squares black, instead some lighter color.

### [ywaspbnp] Scribal abbreviations

Scribal abbreviations made the orthography of Latin character based writing systems as complicated as Chinese characters. Inspired by the thousands of Tironian notes.

Assume the two examples demonstrate that written language naturally wants to become as complicated as Chinese characters. A modern example might be the explosion of emoji, including proposals that new emoji be constructed by joining them with zero width joiners. Can we deduce something deep about how the brain processes language by this tendency toward complexity? Possibly useful for programming language design.

### [fdpgzwjy] Blink

Tell a story of the "joke" mutant from X-Men 2 with the ability to change TV channels by blinking. Perhaps he is revealed to be incredibly powerful, able to control all electronics, or media-related or communication-related electronics, or the media itself: all incredibly useful in the modern world.

Blink, and Cerebro turns off.

### [zaphvymx] 2 bit journal

Create a device, probably an app, which has 4 buttons (perhaps labeled 0 1 2 3) and records the button presses. The user is in charge of developing a code assigning meaning to numbers.

Not providing backspace requires less editing features. Inspired by a purely mechanical typewriter, with no white-out.

Whereas 2 buttons (binary) is sufficient to encode information efficiently, 3 is better for humans because it provides an "escape" value. Then, 4 to compensate for not being able to delete.

With just two buttons, 4 possible chords: left single press, right single press, hold down left then right (release in either order), hold down right then left (release in either order).

De Bruijn sequences are convenient for exploring kerning: //./*/\..*.\**\\ With this character set, the asterisk is hopefully elevated.

Caret is more likely to be elevated than asterisk: //./^/\..^.\^^\\

### [opeycwsz] Nantucket Cottage Hospital

Nantucket Cottage Hospital is classified as the only rural hospital in Massachusetts in order to obtain significant federal Medicare benefits for all of Massachusetts. Could a journalist have discovered this sleaziness through transparency mechanisms in government before the filing mistake which caused it to make the news?

Find other similar things. A challenging task for an artificial intelligence agent.

### [vixhwrcb] P2P software updates

A user delegates managing a personal server to a trusted authority. How can the user trust that the authority has not been compromised, e.g., by the government?

Open source and peer-to-peer attestations that software, especially software updates, can be trusted: web of trust.

## Thursday, May 26, 2016

### [oiabftcu] Coins and bills

Drop the penny, but introduce the dollar coin, thereby keeping the number of coins the same. Drop the dollar bill, but introduce the 2 dollar bill, thereby keeping the number of bills the same.

### [xvcbcrrz] Cook at 575

The Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature scales intersect at 574.5875, which is not that unreasonable a cooking temperature, maybe for grilling or for cooking a pizza. (About 300 degrees Celsius.)

"The cookbook told me to cook at 575, but everything came out wrong because I assumed it meant Fahrenheit when it was actually a metric cookbook and temperatures were in Kelvin!"

## Wednesday, May 25, 2016

### [vrvxntbf] Vector art versus photograph

Painting, or generically 2D art, used to be the only way to record the appearance of a scene or person. It has become obsoleted by photography.

However, digital vector art has an advantage over photography in that it can be rendered at arbitrarily high resolution and not look "wrong" (for some aesthetic measure of "wrong"). Edges remain sharp. At worst, it only looks boring at high magnification.

Photographs look pixelated or weirdly interpolated at high magnification. Fancy interpolation between pixels of a raster photograph could get good results, but it requires computer vision and AI to figure out where the sharp edges should be.

Perhaps someday a hybrid: spline surfaces constructed among rasterized samples in color space on broad regions with sharp vector clipping.

Inspired by, why would anyone commission a portrait these days? Only if it is digital vector art.

### [nyvplgkt] But my boundaries are evil

A person has sexual boundaries they they don't like having violated, but they also recognize that their boundaries line up with great evils of society, e.g., racism, classism, religious intolerance, bigotry about sexual orientation. While having one's boundaries violated is unpleasant, also unpleasant is exercising the power of complaining about the consent violation, exercising a power that perpetuates and enforces such social injustices: one has become a conduit for evil. Discomfort with exercising such power is magnified if there are institutions which automatically trigger punishment once a consent violation has been determined to have occurred. A person feeling uncomfortable with such institutions would rather not think about sex in terms of boundaries and consent, so perhaps therefore they do not think about sex in those terms.

This makes consent culture tricky: it tries to force people into a box of thinking along the lines of consent and boundaries when some would rather not, and do not, for legitimate reasons.

Another person, believing that their partner would prefer not to think about sex in terms of consent and boundaries, does not ask about consent and boundaries in order to be polite, to respect their values.

### [oddcsmjh] Database as cloud storage

Let a cloud data storage service provide a database interface. The user's client software could put a layer over it making it appear like a filesystem, e.g., Dropbox. This is in contrast to cloud services nowadays which provide only a filesystem interface.

Curiously, a filesystem backed by a database is an inversion of the typical implementation on a database server.

Tools like grep and ls could use the database interface to more efficiently process queries. A database could provide useful sophisticated operations for a filesystem, e.g., transactions or multiple versions of a file.

### [mxaejzxb] Speedsolving endgames

A puzzle program with an element of randomization can encourage people to repeatedly solve the puzzle quickly, recording and comparing times. A chess endgame training program often has many moves which provide the most resistance, or many positions which have the same distance to mate.

Inspired by speedcubing the Rubik's cube.

### [wpjulfbl] Coroner

How much power is there in getting to decide what gets recorded as the official cause of death? It is often a single person who makes the call. Is this power being abused? The power of "the crown". Cause of death statistics are often used to formulate policy, though surreptitiously manipulating such statistics to affect policy will probably eventually become discovered in the ineffectiveness of the policy.

### [cxmrvgks] Universal science

Consider humanity's purpose to be to enrich the knowledge of the universe: we should broadcast information that other alien civilizations might find useful. What should we broadcast?

Probably things that are universal. Science. Things that all civilizations might want to know, but perhaps due to the differences between their world and ours, they might not be able to easily learn or discover directly. Physics: transmit the Standard Model, theories of relativity. Chemistry: certain reactions we might be finding relatively easy to do because of elemental distribution on earth, and earth's ambient temperature and pressure. Astronomy: the WMAP cosmic microwave background anistropy picture looks the same everywhere in the universe. ICRF isn't quite universal, but close.

Probably not so much the intricacies of life and society on earth (though that could possibly be useful for comparative studies with other civilizations).

### [mlomfngs] Readonly flash

Non-rewriteable media seems more likely to preserve information for a long time, as people can't reuse the media to store new information. For example, printing on paper or other materials, (modulo bleaching like with the Archimedes palimpsest), CD-ROM, DVD-ROM.

Modify magnetic and solid state storage devices so that they cannot be overwritten. This is probably easiest done with a hardware embedded interlock. Maybe a cryptographic key can unlock it back to read-write mode. This should be fairly easy as these devices have sophisticated hardware in them already.

Inspired by a "Little Library" of a few books someone put in front of their house. People are encouraged to borrow and leave books by the honor system. The honor system works because there isn't much value in stealing a book and (say) attempting to sell the used book. This could also be done with CD-ROMs, but it could not be done with, say, flash drives, because people would just steal them and overwrite the data.

### [kehftnca] Terrorism like graffiti

Consider a public policy mindset shift that treats acts of terrorism like graffiti. While efforts can be made to directly thwart it, it is understood that such direct efforts are only merely treating the symptoms of a deeper underlying problem.

In contrast, currently the mindset against terrorism is to ignore the underlying problem, perhaps rationalized by, if we pay attention to it, then the terrorists have won because attention is what they wanted.

### [yvkrgyls] Stitching doubly ruled surfaces

Doubly rules surfaces are neat. Consider approximating arbitrary shapes by stitching together segments of planes, hyperbolic paraboloids, and hyperboloids of one sheet.

What happens at the boundaries? Of course, the straight rulings offer stitching boundaries. Can there be a curved boundary between such surfaces that avoids a crease?

### [egbcxdmv] Full duplex roads

In a future with roads populated only by fully automated cars, we imagine cars traveling both directions on all lanes to maximize bandwidth, rapidly and precisely switching lanes to avoid head on collisions.

Depict such a future using computer graphics.

Inspired by a traffic jam going only one direction on a highway, but the other direction nearly empty. Also inspired by the zipper merge, which maximizes bandwidth by using all available area.

Previously, intersections.

### [wtmqhhap] Hand cranked calculator

Create a calculator powered by human power. Set up a computation, perhaps mechanically, then turn the crank. How sophisticated a calculation can it do, and how many turns of the crank will it need? Probably done by having the crank power an electric generator which powers an electronic computer, though it'll take some engineering for the computer to be able to work on the "dirty" power generated from a crank. Booting up an operating system at the start of a computation is a no go.

### [nocvsmfi] Black hole versus Superman

Depict superheroes and supervillains fighting among realistic depictions of hugely dangerous astronomical objects, e.g., black holes.

It is hard to imagine men and man-made objects of realistic materials surviving encounters with such objects (inspired by Interstellar), but indestructible superheroes, sure why not?

Science fiction of course invokes spacecraft protected by nearly indestructible "shields".

### [ncilfinb] Embouchure

Musical wind instruments demonstrate that a large amount of information can "naturally" be transmitted through muscles in the mouth. This is especially pronounced in instruments like trumpet, in which the hands and fingers transmit only 3 bits (3 pistons): everything else is done through the embouchure and breath.

Create a digital input device exploiting this capability. Obviously hygiene issues, though that has always been present with wind instruments.

### [ottjfvec] Quadratic equation surface

What does the 3D surface f(b,c) = RootOf(x^2 + bx + c,x) look like? Of course, two surfaces, one for each root, and undefined where b^2-4c is negative.

### [gkgjvfux] PTSD and Rat Park

Hypothesize that the severity of PTSD depends on the social structures around a person (probably both before and after the trauma). Inspired vaguely by the Rat Park experiment which linked social effects with psycholgical effects.

Unknown are details of exactly what features of social structures around a person.

PTSD is most famously associated with soldiers returning from the battlefield. It is surprising that the military does not have a detailed model of who gets PTSD more than others, even though there is obviously variation between soldiers, and they have lots of data.

It might be that the people most prone to PTSD unfortunately get recruited into the military: military is often a last resort for those who cannot succeed elsewhere, but success elsewhere is often a result of social structures around a person.

### [pbdmnaiu] Pitching with a running start

How would baseball be different if the pitcher is permitted a running start before pitching the ball?

Running up the mound might be awkward, though there could be an entire elevated catwalk from second base. Base runners are probably allowed to steal during the run.

Inspired by cricket.

### [qsodulwx] Upgrade all the machines

Currently available major operating system upgrades: Windows 10, Mac OS X 10.11 "El Capitan", Ubuntu Linux 16.04 "Xenial Xerus".

### [tfsdsywz] Disable battery

Create software to give the user control of what happens when a battery powered device is unplugged from wall power.

Most aggressive is to immediately turn off the device, essentially disabling the battery. Such a feature may be useful if the device is seized in a raid, and law enforcement attempts to move the device while keeping it powered on. The device powers off in response to the attempt to move it, then requiring, for example, a password on boot to unlock full disk encryption on boot.

These could be defeated by cold boot attacks against memory or devices like the Hotplug, but that requires more effort by the raiders.

Less aggressively, the screen can lock when switching from AC power to battery, again requiring a password to unlock.

### [itkbymco] Detect keyboard/mouse keepalive

There exist USB devices that simulate mouse movement and keyboard activity. They are famously used by law enforcement on computers seized in a raid to prevent them from locking and requiring a password to unlock.

Create software that detects that such a device is being used and locks the screen, or more aggressively, wipes the device.

### [nwbtyedw] Ordinal collections

Objects which have names but could by referred to by number:

Months of the year

Planets. Though theoretically planets could switch orbits or get destroyed.

Chemical elements (many were named before their proton count was known)

Quark generations

Astronomical spectrographic categories

States by statehood date, picking an order for North and South Dakota. There will be gaps if there is ever a successful secession. What should be done if a state splits into two? Or mergers? Probably the older one is the one which has the original state capitol, though the new border could go through the building.

Stages of grief

Inspired by how Japanese month names are just numbers.

### [fzcodpix] Blinking light

Create a light which remains on when the battery is providing full voltage, but which blinks or flashes slower and slower as the battery becomes low.

## Tuesday, May 24, 2016

### [nfidtbay] Binary directions

East dawn sunrise morning breakfast AM right dexter birth

West dusk sunset evening supper PM left sinister death

Inspired by the phonetic similarity of the words east and west in English and Spanish.

## Sunday, May 22, 2016

### [euksdkqn] Filesystem simulator

Create a filesystem simulator. The motivation was to stress test the integrity of a real filesystem by having a model of ideal behavior to compare it against.

The simulator stores directory structure but not the contents of files. Instead of files, it stores the key or seed used to generate the data (probably random data) in each file. Therefore a large simulated filesystem can be stored in memory.

This should be easy, though there is an unlimited amount of sophistication possible.

### [qxawuppk] Knowing doomsday

There is a key moment in the evolution of life, in particular intelligent life, when it has discovered enough science to understand that it is doomed.

For humans, it is some combination of when we learned that the sun will get hot enough to boil away the oceans, expand to envelop the earth, that protons will (probably) decay, and that the heat death of the universe will occur.

### [xvcsirmw] Superfight

Superman fights (say) General Zod and they continually up their game until they are doing astronomical amounts of damage to the surrounding landscape: e.g., black holes form from the energy of the colliding punches.

Needless to say, the earth is destroyed.

Perhaps fun to depict accurate special effects, inspired by Interstellar.

### [zzracaqi] One foul out

How would basketball be different if a single personal foul caused a player to foul out? Probably the depth of the bench would matter more.

## Saturday, May 21, 2016

### [wejoffby] Color channel permutations of Lenna

Permuting the RGB channels, and exploring all combinations of inverting individual channels: Normal=0, inverted=1.

Used the recolor.sh script from this project.

Possibly useful for a deck of cards.

The images look negative for the middle 4 columns, with the second component inverted.

000 | 001 | 011 | 010 | 110 | 111 | 101 | 100 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

rgb | ||||||||

rbg | ||||||||

brg | ||||||||

bgr | ||||||||

gbr | ||||||||

grb |

### [bqiuwkuo] Creating a slideshow of out of large images

Some scripts that take very large astronomical images, e.g., Veil Nebula, Carina Nebula, Orion Nebula, Tarantula Nebula, and cut them up into smaller pieces. Inspired by: has anyone ever looked at the entirety of these images very closely?

Also, all 90 degree rotations (because astronomy has no notion of which way is up) and permutations and inversions of color channels. These may enhance less noticeable detail.

(Work in progress.)

## Wednesday, May 18, 2016

### [zcdyyenr] Canonical recursive pixel ordering

Cut the image in half orthogonal to the longer side. If a square image, prefer a horizontal cut, inspired by the commonness of images processed in horizontal raster lines top to bottom. If the length is odd, then make the right or bottom half the bigger half: coordinates therefore run 0 <= c < size/2 and ceil(size/2) <= c < size.

Recursively process the two halves, left right or top bottom. Stop at a single pixel.

0 1 2

4 6 7

5 8 9

This is a kd tree with k=2.

Choices made: what to do if square, odd, left first, top first. Create a tool to explore alternate choices, also including the possibilities of the dimensions (factorization) if one does not know it.

### [fbkaaipf] Bourgeoisie versus proletariat wages

The conventional narrative goes, the bourgeoisie put into place barriers against upward mobility of the proletariat. This artificially keeps wages high among the bourgeoisie because of low labor supply. It keeps wages artificially low among the proletariat because of high labor supply, and therefore keeps the cost of servant labor low for the bourgeoisie.

What is the nature of these barriers? They are causing market failure in the labor market.

The barriers must be very secure because the proletariat are constantly probing and attacking it, constantly adapting, seeking to improve their lot in life. Analogies: sea wall, or microorganisms against immune system. I suspect inculcating identity is part of the system: it is something the proletariat (and people in general) cannot easily change.

Another problem with the conventional narrative is that the bourgeoisie are not a monolithic block. They also employ other bourgeoisie. The employer bourgeoisie compete against each other, seeking to minimize labor costs, so if they can expand the labor supply for a task formerly limited only to bourgeoisie, their labor costs will go down. Thus the employer bourgeoisie will want to provide upwards mobility to the proletariat, so will work to dismantle barriers. How do the barriers remain in place and not erode?

### [vilnycgm] rsync with fast ssh

Minimize the CPU load:

rsync -avP -e 'ssh -T -x -o Cipher=arcfour128 -o Compression=no'

### [xzrmsxpw] Isomorphic algorithms

Given two Rubik's move sequences, determine whether they are the same. Different ways "the same" can be defined: 24 different orientations of the cube. Or also add reflection. Or discount trivial equivalencies, like RRR=R', opposite faces turning sequentially like RL=LR. TTBBRLRLRLRLTTBB. Or the moves don't matter, only the final effect, the permutation accomplished.

## Tuesday, May 17, 2016

### [ttpngjdd] Rat Park and discrimination

Assuming the Rat Park experiment to be true, then whether a person remains addicted is highly indicative of the social support structures around them. Social support structures are highly indicative of social class. Addiction becomes a visible marker to invisible social class. The observation of discrimination against people with addiction, often of contempt, suggests that Rat Park is true, as confirmed by society.

### [mlawnxpo] Coordinates on a go 囲碁 board

In chess, a reasonably skilled player (or fan) can instantaneously locate a square specified in algebraic notation, without having to refer to coordinates on the side of the board (or counting coordinates if they aren't written) and finding the intersection. The board seems small enough that each square has its own identity and the coordinates are just names rather than instructions on how to find it. (Perhaps beginners have such a hard time at this that it is a barrier to entry.)

In 19x19 go 囲碁, the board is too large for each intersection to have such an instantly locatable identity, so we consider ways to refer to a specific intersection, especially for things like commentators discussing a game in progress on a demonstration board.

The most obvious, and already commonly done method, is to have coordinates marked along the side of the board. However, because the board is so large, following a coordinate line all the way across the board takes time and is prone to error. (Geometrically, this is an instance of area growing faster than perimeter.) Only the corner regions are quick.

A simple elaboration would for coordinates to be marked on every intersection, similar to beginner's chess boards. Assuming letter plus number, we win because the highest number is 19, and the 1 digit does not take much space in a proportional font. The board does potentially get noisy with a lot of text, especially if each played stone is also annotated with its move number.

Another already commonly done method is for commentators to add marks, e.g., letters, to certain intersections (which may or may not be occupied with a played stone) and refer to the marks in discussion. The marks are landmarks.

With landmarks, we can ambitiously also consider a standardized language for referring to a point a given offset from a landmark. The area reachable by N wazir moves is a diamond shaped region given by OEIS A001844. Exploit approximate 8-way symmetry (understanding that orthogonal and 45 degree diagonal points will have redundant names). 24 letters, perhaps NATO alphabet plus an octant specifier can cover up to 9 wazir moves (A002620). An offset such as a knight's move will always have the same name (but different octant specifiers) in all 8 possible directions.

Inspiration was two commentators commenting on an online go board. Though this could be solved better with software: each commentator could have a different colored pointer.

### [pxmdmzuc] Finite simple group of order one

0 + 0 = 0

inverse(0) = 0

Or, isomorphically:

1 * 1 = 1

inverse(1) = 1

Following the song "Finite Simple Group (Of Order Two)", this would be a metaphor for masturbation. "One is the loneliest number."

### [umamqtaa] Celestial and global spheres

Play around with overlaying the celestial sphere onto the surface of the earth. 1 meter on earth = 32 milliarcseconds in the sky, which is finer than the resolving power of the Hubble Space Telescope. Depict asterisms "actual size": it'll usually take huge amounts of area.

Inspired by the hoax of an ancient civilization aligning their cities with the stars.

Previously similar. Also xkcd 1276 "Angular size".

### [enwpxahc] Liberate what you cite

If you cite a work in an academic paper, you have a moral obligation to make sure the cited work is easily available, or make it so if not. Your paper depends on the previous paper; without it your paper loses value and meaning. If it weren't for copyright, copy it verbatim and include it as an appendix. Copyright interferes with the moral obligation.

Even with copyright, rewriting is possible.

Let this idea be the basis for modification of copyright law for academic publishing. Frequently cited works will become frequently copied, so preserved.

### [wtqflfwv] Bright F star

The eye is most sensitive to photons emitted by stars of the F spectral class. Unsurprisingly, they appear white. F is one category higher than the yellow G class of our Sun.

Not green, which lies between yellow and blue in the rainbow and is the pure frequency to which our eyes are most sensitive. Stars, approximately black body radiators, do not emit pure frequencies but a broad spectrum.

### [uchwrbck] Hitching a ride on Barnard's Star

If we can put a spacecraft in orbit around a star with unusually high velocity relative to the center of the galaxy, then it can travel long distances "for free", and have a long-lived source of power. The time scale will still be at least millions of years, so it will have to be a very long lived spacecraft.

Need gravitational slingshots to insert into orbit, or else accelerating (and decelerating) will be just as difficult as achieving the high speed without a star.

Kapteyn's Star is heading away from us, so we would have independently achieve velocity fast enough to catch it. This seems like a bad idea. Barnard's Star is coming towards us.

Tagging along with a hypervelocity star allows exploring beyond the galaxy.

### [yquwrqew] Red dwarf power

Put a space probe in orbit around a red dwarf star and get "solar" power for a trillion years or more. Watch out for flares and collisions with other orbiting bodies.

For a mission with such a long time scale, it's not so important to get there quickly. Nevertheless, there are quite a few nearby red dwarf stars.

## Monday, May 16, 2016

### [szamjfab] Error messages and documentation for FTP

One of the criticisms of the Foldable/Traversable Proposal (FTP) in Haskell is that error messages get more confusing and documentation gets harder to understand. Both of these problems could be addressed with improvements to tools.

Errors when calling a polymorphic function with a Foldable or Traversable context could have additional text repeating what the error message would be if the function were specialized to lists.

Haddock could generate additional documentation for a polymorphic function with Foldable or Traversable context: generate, as documentation, what the type signature would be if the function were specialized to lists. Or, the type variable could be named (renamed) "list":

mapM :: (Traversable list, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> list a -> m (list a)

## Sunday, May 15, 2016

### [twltdatf] Sex as validation

In many cultures, there is shame in masturbation and shame in consumption of prostitution, reflected, for example, in huge efforts to maintain the privacy of clients. (Providing prostitution is also considered shameful, but not the subject of this post.) Relatedly, there is shame in consumption of some forms of pornography. Why is there such shame?

Hypothesize that the reasoning is that only people who cannot obtain sex through the standard courtship process find it through masturbation or prostitution. But those who are failing at the standard courtship process are pariahs for *some* reason: by that reason, whatever it is, they must be inferior, defective human beings, so it is appropriate to heap shame upon them.

This then provides one reason why people find sex obtained through the standard courtship process pleasurable: it provides validation that one is not an inferior, defective human being.

This then provides some hint as to why there is sexual violence: rejection of sex to such people represents a deep insult against one's status as a person, and so might provide incentive to go out one's way to be violent, despite violence requiring effort.

In general, the feeling of validation, regardless of context not limited to sex, is an intensely powerfully pleasing emotion in many people. (Inspired by someone for whom the pleasure of good partner dances is the pleasure of validation that one is a good dancer, or possibly deeper than that, that one is a good person.)

What can be done? Perhaps further understanding, and education to make common knowledge, of the mechanisms by which people's sexual preferences and boundaries develop. However, a fundamental question is, are they actually defective, inferior people, especially when considering not just biological but social features of a person? If so, further knowledge could make things worse.

Is this powerful insecurity people have of their status as a person a recent phenomenon, perhaps a product of the American social class structure, or is it as old as humanity? Although sex itself is of course as old as humanity, the possibility that the reason we enjoy it being a modern phenomenon is mind-boggling. It could explain how art from a different era or different culture, especially art about sex or courtship, is difficult to appreciate nowadays, perhaps considered misogynistic.

## Thursday, May 12, 2016

### [yfgfmdip] Through the wormhole

In some hard science fiction, travelers from Earth pass through a wormhole, arriving at a new planet. Over the course of the story, they try to figure out where they are, relative to Earth, how far they have traveled. First they look at the sky with their eyes and notice the constellations aren't even remotely similar. Later, they construct VLBI and notice that the pattern of distant quasars is also not similar. They measure the cosmic microwave background and find that the temperature is about the same, so they haven't traveled (significantly) through time. Later, they launch a satellite and measure the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, replicating WMAP, and discover...

I guess the moral of the story is that you should carry the WMAP anisotropy picture with you, just in case you ever need to confirm whether you've been abducted and dropped into an alternate universe. The picture is a fingerprint of the universe. Getting a tattoo mimics the map of the world in Waterworld.

The raw, prerendered, data for the image is at http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr5/ilc_map_get.cfm.

## Tuesday, May 10, 2016

### [ysylvcyk] Go 囲碁 boards of different sizes

The popular smaller sizes of go 囲碁 seem to be 9x9 and 13x13, corresponding to roughly a quarter and a half of the area of a 19x19 board. The next size following the progression would be 27x27, double the area of a 19x19.

Geometrically, edge length 2n+1 gives a board roughly 4 times the size.

Further smaller boards become even sized: 4x4 and 6x6, which slightly changes the feel of the game by not having a center point. Using powers of 2 or 2^n-1 would avoid such a change for the standard quadrupling series, but the half sizes in between are awkward. There is wisdom in the 19x19 size.

We can also imagine go 囲碁 being played simultaneously on multiple boards of different sizes, but, in the style of combinatorial game theory, playing on exactly one board per move: which board is the most urgent? This captures the spirit of a bunch of local fights as seen on a single big board. Arrange the multiple boards in a pretty pattern, perhaps 3 dimensionally. 1 largest board, odd number each of the smaller boards (not even to avoid mirror strategy). 1 19x19, 3 13x13, 5 9x9 gives 1273 total points, roughly 3.5 times the size of 19x19, or about the same as 36x36. There remains the boring possibility of mirror strategies on all but one of the multiple copies of the smaller boards, so maybe a pyramid of smaller sizes is better: one each of 9 11 13 15 17 19 gives 1246 total points. Adding 5 and 7 gives 1320. 19 15 11 7 gives 756, similar in size to 27x27.

Fibonacci series of boards arranged in a spiral.

## Sunday, May 08, 2016

### [frwapody] Binary multiples of smoots

2^-20 smoot = 1.62296295166015625 micrometer

2^-19 smoot = 3.2459259033203125 micrometer

2^-18 smoot = 6.491851806640625 micrometer

2^-17 smoot = 12.98370361328125 micrometer

2^-16 smoot = 25.9674072265625 micrometer

2^-15 smoot = 51.934814453125 micrometer

2^-14 smoot = 103.86962890625 micrometer

2^-13 smoot = 207.7392578125 micrometer

2^-12 smoot = 415.478515625 micrometer

2^-11 smoot = 830.95703125 micrometer

2^-10 smoot = 1.6619140625 mm

2^-9 smoot = 3.323828125 mm

2^-8 smoot = 6.64765625 mm

2^-7 smoot = 13.2953125 mm

2^-6 smoot = 26.590625 mm

2^-5 smoot = 53.18125 mm

2^-4 smoot = 106.3625 mm

2^-3 smoot = 212.725 mm

2^-2 smoot = 425.45 mm

2^-1 smoot = 850.9 mm

2^0 smoot = 1.7018 m

2^1 smoot = 3.4036 m

2^2 smoot = 6.8072 m

2^3 smoot = 13.6144 m

2^4 smoot = 27.2288 m

2^5 smoot = 54.4576 m

2^6 smoot = 108.9152 m

2^7 smoot = 217.8304 m

2^8 smoot = 435.6608 m

2^9 smoot = 871.3216 m

2^10 smoot = 1.7426432 km

Inspired by a tape measure marked in smoots: a cool concept, but made practically useless by having markings only for 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and 1 smoot. Snatching defeat from the jaws of victory. Maybe I'll add additional markings. Centismoot or millismoot would make the tape actually useful for measuring things to reasonable precision. 250 millismoots.

Previously, binary multiples of Planck units.

## Saturday, May 07, 2016

### [cmsmqydo] More cards

Combinatorial structures and objects could be nice bases for a deck of playing cards. The cards relate to one another by their combinatorial interpretation. The card face illustrates the combinatorial structure.

Bell numbers: 52 partitions of a set of 5.

Catalan numbers: 42 non-crossing partitions of 5.

Partition function (number theory), Young diagram, Young's lattice, Young tableau, p(11) = 56.

Central binomial coefficient: binomial(8,4)=70.

Fibonacci sequence: F(10) = 55, though not sure how to illustrate this one.

2 of each card (2 suits) might be better.

### [kujvfoce] Binary encoding a chess piece

if is_slider then case y of {

0 -> unassigned

1 -> bishop

2 -> rook

3 -> queen -- (queen = bishop | rook)

} else case y of {

0 -> unassigned

1 -> pawn

2 -> knight

3 -> king

}

(Haskell-style pseudocode.)

One more bit for the color of the piece, so 4 bits total.

An empty square could be assigned either of the unassigned codes, perhaps the one the corresponds to all zeroes.

### [amrqqkbd] Schadenfreude and the perception filter

Schadenfreude is an unusual emotion, both because it is very strong, but also because it depends on someone else's emotions.

More unusual is that people don't notice how unusual it is. Why?

It, or its underlying mechanism, is probably at the root of much, maybe all, of human conflict, and ultimately might be the cause of our extinction.

### [pacajlps] Hinting emoji

Vector graphics are of course wonderful for fonts because they can be scaled to any size, but we need a little bit more information: location of baseline, shape modifications for hinting for rasterizing to small sizes, where horizontally combining accents go, probably many other things also. The font people have figured this all out.

Inspiration was Unicode emojigeddon: inline images would almost be just fine.

## Friday, May 06, 2016

### [ixhlvtqy] Multiplayer go 囲碁 with more connectivity

Modify go 囲碁 to have more than 2 players. Each player has a different color. We probably want nodes with more connectivity, more edges, to avoid groups from being too easily killed. 6 way connectivity with equilateral triangular lattice graph. 8 ways on a square lattice graph, but also connecting diagonals. Higher dimensions.

Then the multiplayer game could be reduced back down to 2 players.

### [ifatvmmk] New soundtrack to three-way duel

Create a new soundtrack to the showdown at the end of The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. It has no dialogue, so does not require mixing the actor's voices.

Some might consider it sacrilegious to touch Sergio Leone.

What other good scenes are there with no dialogue?

### [ssnevtij] Chess opening computation

Some games of Stockfish Chess playing against itself, from various openings. 10 billion nodes per move, 9 GB (8 GB actual) hash, 4 threads. No opening book, no endgame tablebase.

Previously similar, with Glaurung and 1 billion nodes per move.

This was a very long computation:

real 59592m30.969s

user 235704m20.583s

sys 70m25.529s

The version of Stockfish was, according to git describe, sf_5-472-g86f04db, corresponding to tree 86f04dbcc08e52864c1136d713996e3a0c8d2610. Here is the source code to scripts, and here are extensive logs, compressed. Reasonably proud of the software engineering on this: a bunch of narrow purpose utilities joined with Perl, following the Unix philosophy.

Starting from the initial position, Stockfish plays the C08 French Defense, Tarrasch Variation. Starting after 1.d4, E50 Nimzo-Indian Main line. 1.e4 c5 transposes into B90 Sicilian Najdorf. 1.e4 e5 does C50 Giuoco Pianissimo. The forced moves were only 2 moves (4 ply) deep, so no Ruy Lopez, which in retrospect was an oversight. (Ruy Lopez now currently calculating.)

The only decisive game started 1.e4 g6, a Modern Defense transposing into B08 Pirc Classical Variation.

The forced moves are given in bold; the rest of the moves were calculated by the engine.

Update: added Ruy Lopez. All games drawn. Additional computation time:

real 6469m2.440s

user 25836m16.440s

sys 6m36.127s

**1.c4** **c5** 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 e6 6.Bf4 d5 7.e3 Bc5 8.Nxc6 bxc6 9.Be2 O-O 10.O-O Bd6 11.Bxd6 Qxd6 12.Qd2 Rd8 13.Rfd1 a5 14.b3 Ba6 15.Na4 Ne4 16.Qc2 Nc5 17.Nxc5 Qxc5 18.Rac1 h6 19.h3 Qb4 20.cxd5 Bxe2 21.Qxe2 cxd5 22.Rd4 Qe7 23.Qd2 Rdb8 24.h4 Rb4 25.g3 Rxd4 26.Qxd4 Qa3 27.Rc2 Rb8 28.h5 Qb4 29.Qa7 Rf8 30.Qc5 Qg4 31.Rc1 Ra8 32.Qc6 Rb8 33.Qc7 Qb4 34.Qa7 Rf8 35.a4 e5 36.Qc7 Qxb3 37.Qxe5 Qxa4 38.Qxd5 Qb4 39.Kg2 a4 40.Rc5 Rb8 41.Ra5 a3 42.Ra7 Qb3 43.Qd6 Rf8 44.Qd2 Kh7 45.Qa5 Kg8 46.e4 Re8 47.Qxa3 Qxa3 48.Rxa3 Rxe4 49.Ra8+ Kh7 50.Ra5 g6 51.Kf3 Rb4 52.hxg6+ fxg6 53.Ra7+ Kg8 54.g4 h5 55.gxh5 gxh5 56.Ra5 Rh4 57.Kg3 Rh1 58.Ra7 Kf8 59.f3 Kg8 60.Kf4 Rh3 61.Ra3 Kf7 62.Kg5 Ke6 63.Ra6+ Kd5 64.Kf4 Rh1 65.Ra5+ Ke6 66.Kg5 Rh3 67.f4 Rh1 68.f5+ Kf7 69.Ra7+ Ke8 70.Rh7 h4 71.Rxh4 Rxh4 72.Kxh4 Kf7 73.Kg5 Kg7 74.f6+ Kf7 75.Kf5 Kf8 76.Kg4 Kg8 77.Kh5 Kf7 78.Kg5 Kf8 79.Kf4 Kg8 80.Kg3 Kf7 81.Kf3 Kxf6 82.Ke4 Ke6 83.Ke3 Ke5 84.Kf3 Kf5 85.Ke3 Ke6 86.Ke4 Kf6 87.Kd5 Kf5 88.Kd6 Kg6 89.Kc5 Kf6 90.Kd4 Ke6 91.Ke3 Ke5 92.Kf3 Kf5 93.Ke3 Ke6 94.Ke4 Kf6 95.Kd5 Kf5 96.Kd6 Kg6 97.Kc5 Kf6 98.Kd4 Ke6 99.Ke3 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.c4** **c5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 e6 6.Bf4 d5 7.e3 Bc5 8.Nxc6 bxc6 9.Be2 O-O 10.O-O Bd6 11.Bxd6 Qxd6 12.Qd2 Rd8 13.Rfd1 a5 14.b3 Ba6 15.Na4 Ne4 16.Qc2 Nc5 17.Nxc5 Qxc5 18.Rac1 h6 19.h3 Qb4 20.cxd5 Bxe2 21.Qxe2 cxd5 22.Rd4 Qe7 23.Qd2 Rdb8 24.h4 Rb4 25.g3 Rxd4 26.Qxd4 Qa3 27.Rc2 Rb8 28.h5 Qb4 29.Qa7 Rf8 30.Qc5 Qg4 31.Rc1 Ra8 32.Qc6 Rb8 33.Qc7 Qb4 34.Qa7 Rf8 35.a4 e5 36.Qc7 Qxb3 37.Qxe5 Qxa4 38.Qxd5 Qb4 39.Kg2 a4 40.Rc5 Rb8 41.Ra5 a3 42.Ra7 Qb3 43.Qd6 Rf8 44.Qd2 Kh7 45.Qa5 Kg8 46.e4 Re8 47.Qxa3 Qxa3 48.Rxa3 Rxe4 49.Ra8+ Kh7 50.Ra5 g6 51.Kf3 Rb4 52.hxg6+ fxg6 53.Ra7+ Kg8 54.g4 h5 55.gxh5 gxh5 56.Ra5 Rh4 57.Kg3 Rh1 58.Ra7 Kf8 59.f3 Kg8 60.Kf4 Rh3 61.Ra3 Kf7 62.Kg5 Ke6 63.Ra6+ Kd5 64.Kf4 Rh1 65.Ra5+ Ke6 66.Kg5 Rh3 67.f4 Rh1 68.f5+ Kf7 69.Ra7+ Ke8 70.Rh7 h4 71.Rxh4 Rxh4 72.Kxh4 Kf7 73.Kg5 Kg7 74.f6+ Kf7 75.Kf5 Kf8 76.Kg4 Kg8 77.Kh5 Kf7 78.Kg5 Kf8 79.Kf4 Kg8 80.Kg3 Kf7 81.Kf3 Kxf6 82.Ke4 Ke6 83.Ke3 Ke5 84.Kf3 Kf5 85.Ke3 Ke6 86.Ke4 Kf6 87.Kd5 Kf5 88.Kd6 Kg6 89.Kc5 Kf6 90.Kd4 Ke6 91.Ke3 Ke5 92.Kf3 Kf5 93.Ke3 Ke6 94.Ke4 Kf6 95.Kd5 Kf5 96.Kd6 Kg6 97.Kc5 Kf6 98.Kd4 Ke6 99.Ke3 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.c4** **c5** **2.Nf3** Nf6 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 e6 6.Bf4 d5 7.e3 Bc5 8.Nxc6 bxc6 9.Be2 O-O 10.O-O Bd6 11.Bxd6 Qxd6 12.Qd2 Rd8 13.Rfd1 a5 14.b3 Ba6 15.Na4 Ne4 16.Qc2 Nc5 17.Nxc5 Qxc5 18.Rac1 h6 19.h3 Qb4 20.cxd5 Bxe2 21.Qxe2 cxd5 22.Rd4 Qe7 23.Qd2 Rdb8 24.h4 Rb4 25.g3 Rxd4 26.Qxd4 Qa3 27.Rc2 Rb8 28.h5 Qb4 29.Qa7 Rf8 30.Qc5 Qg4 31.Rc1 Ra8 32.Qc6 Rb8 33.Qc7 Qb4 34.Qa7 Rf8 35.a4 e5 36.Qc7 Qxb3 37.Qxe5 Qxa4 38.Qxd5 Qb4 39.Kg2 a4 40.Rc5 Rb8 41.Ra5 a3 42.Ra7 Qb3 43.Qd6 Rf8 44.Qd2 Kh7 45.Qa5 Kg8 46.e4 Re8 47.Qxa3 Qxa3 48.Rxa3 Rxe4 49.Ra8+ Kh7 50.Ra5 g6 51.Kf3 Rb4 52.hxg6+ fxg6 53.Ra7+ Kg8 54.g4 h5 55.gxh5 gxh5 56.Ra5 Rh4 57.Kg3 Rh1 58.Ra7 Kf8 59.f3 Kg8 60.Kf4 Rh3 61.Ra3 Kf7 62.Kg5 Ke6 63.Ra6+ Kd5 64.Kf4 Rh1 65.Ra5+ Ke6 66.Kg5 Rh3 67.f4 Rh1 68.f5+ Kf7 69.Ra7+ Ke8 70.Rh7 h4 71.Rxh4 Rxh4 72.Kxh4 Kf7 73.Kg5 Kg7 74.f6+ Kf7 75.Kf5 Kf8 76.Kg4 Kg8 77.Kh5 Kf7 78.Kg5 Kf8 79.Kf4 Kg8 80.Kg3 Kf7 81.Kf3 Kxf6 82.Ke4 Ke6 83.Ke3 Ke5 84.Kf3 Kf5 85.Ke3 Ke6 86.Ke4 Kf6 87.Kd5 Kf5 88.Kd6 Kg6 89.Kc5 Kf6 90.Kd4 Ke6 91.Ke3 Ke5 92.Kf3 Kf5 93.Ke3 Ke6 94.Ke4 Kf6 95.Kd5 Kf5 96.Kd6 Kg6 97.Kc5 Kf6 98.Kd4 Ke6 99.Ke3 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.c4** e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e4 Bb4 5.d3 d6 6.a3 Bxc3+ 7.bxc3 O-O 8.Be2 b6 9.O-O Nd7 10.Bg5 Qe8 11.Nh4 f6 12.Be3 Nc5 13.Nf5 Na5 14.Ng3 Qa4 15.Qb1 Ne6 16.Bd1 Qe8 17.Qc2 Bd7 18.Rb1 Rb8 19.h3 Kh8 20.Bg4 Qe7 21.Qd2 Qf7 22.Rfe1 Rbd8 23.Rb2 Ba4 24.Rb4 Bd7 25.Rbb1 Nc5 26.Be2 Nab3 27.Qa2 Na5 28.Qd2 Nab3 29.Qa2 Na5 30.Qd2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.c4** **Nf6** **2.Nc3** e5 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.e4 Bb4 5.d3 d6 6.a3 Bxc3+ 7.bxc3 O-O 8.Be2 b6 9.O-O Nd7 10.Bg5 Qe8 11.Nh4 f6 12.Be3 Nc5 13.Nf5 Na5 14.Ng3 Qa4 15.Qb1 Ne6 16.Bd1 Qe8 17.Qc2 Bd7 18.Rb1 Rb8 19.h3 Kh8 20.Bg4 Qe7 21.Qd2 Qf7 22.Rfe1 Rbd8 23.Rb2 Ba4 24.Rb4 Bd7 25.Rbb1 Nc5 26.Be2 Nab3 27.Qa2 Na5 28.Qd2 Nab3 29.Qa2 Na5 30.Qd2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.c4** **Nf6** 2.Nf3 b6 3.g3 e6 4.Bg2 Bb7 5.d4 Be7 6.O-O O-O 7.Re1 d5 8.cxd5 exd5 9.Nc3 Nbd7 10.Bf4 c5 11.e3 Ne4 12.h4 Ndf6 13.dxc5 Nxc3 14.bxc3 Bxc5 15.Qb3 Ne4 16.Ne5 Qe7 17.Rad1 Qe6 18.Bxe4 dxe4 19.Qxe6 fxe6 20.Nd7 Rfc8 21.Nxc5 Rxc5 22.Rd7 Ba6 23.Re7 Bd3 24.g4 Ra5 25.Ra1 Rd8 26.Kg2 h6 27.Rxe6 Kf7 28.Rc6 Bb5 29.Rc7+ Rd7 30.Rxd7+ Bxd7 31.Kg3 Be6 32.a3 g5 33.Bd6 gxh4+ 34.Kxh4 Kg6 35.Rg1 Rd5 36.Bb8 Ra5 37.Kg3 Rxa3 38.Rb1 Ra4 39.Rd1 Ra3 40.Rd6 Kf6 41.Rc6 Ra2 42.c4 Ra4 43.c5 Ra1 44.Kf4 Rf1 45.cxb6 Rxf2+ 46.Kxe4 axb6 47.Rxb6 Kf7 48.Bf4 Bxg4 49.Rxh6 Ra2 50.Bc7 Ra4+ 51.Ke5 Be2 52.Bb6 Rg4 53.Kf5 Rg6 54.Rh7+ Kg8 55.Rb7 Ba6 56.Rb8+ Kf7 57.Bd4 Rh6 58.Kg5 Rd6 59.Kf4 Rh6 60.Ke4 Rh4+ 61.Kd5 Rh5+ 62.Be5 Rh4 63.Rb2 Bc4+ 64.Kd6 Re4 65.Rf2+ Kg6 66.Bd4 Re8 67.Rf6+ Kg5 68.Rf4 Re6+ 69.Kc5 Bb3 70.Rf3 Ba4 71.Kc4 Bc6 72.Rf4 Be4 73.Rf8 Kg6 74.Bc5 Rf6 75.Re8 Kf5 76.Kd4 Bc6 77.Rc8 Rg6 78.Rf8+ Rf6 79.Rh8 Kg4 80.Kd3 Kf3 81.Rh3+ Kg4 82.Rh7 Kf3 83.Rh1 Be4+ 84.Kd4 Ra6 85.Rh4 Ra4+ 86.Kc3 Bc6 87.Rxa4 Bxa4 88.Kd4 Bd1 89.e4 Bb3 90.Ba3 Ke2 91.e5 Bd1 92.e6 Ba4 93.e7 Bb5 94.Kc5 Be8 95.Bb2 Kf3 96.Be5 Ke4 97.Bc3 Bg6 98.Bd4 Bh5 99.Kc4 Kf3 100.Ba1 Ke3 101.Bb2 Kd2 102.Kb3 Ke1 103.Ba1 Kd1 104.Ka3 Ke2 105.Bb2 Ke1 106.Kb4 Kf1 107.Ba1 Ke1 108.Bf6 Kf1 109.Ka3 Ke2 110.Bc3 Ke3 111.Bb4 Kf2 112.Kb2 Ke2 113.Kc3 Be8 114.Bd6 Kf3 115.Kb4 Bh5 116.Bh2 Ke3 117.Bg3 Kd2 118.Kc5 Kc2 119.Be5 Kb3 120.Bf4 Kb2 121.Kb4 Ka2 122.Be5 Kb1 123.Bf6 Kc1 124.Kc5 Kd1 125.Bg5 Ke1 126.Kd4 Kf1 127.Bc1 Kg1 128.Kc5 Kf1 129.Be3 Ke1 130.Kb4 Ke2 131.Bc1 Ke1 132.Ba3 Kf1 133.Bb2 Ke1 134.Ba1 Kd2 135.Bg7 Kc1 136.Bf8 Kc2 137.Kc5 Kc1 138.Kb6 Kc2 139.Bg7 Kb3 140.Kc6 Be8+ 141.Kc7 Kc4 142.Kd8 Ba4 143.e8=Q Bxe8 144.Kxe8 Kb3 145.Kd8 Kc2 146.Ke7 Kb1 147.Kd6 Ka2 148.Kc5 Kb3 149.Be5 Kc2 150.Kd4 Kb1 151.Kd3 Ka2 152.Bd4 Kb3 153.Bc3 Ka2 154.Kc2 Ka3 155.Bb2+ Ka4 156.Bc1 Kb5 157.Kb3 Kc6 158.Be3 Kd6 159.Bf4+ Kc5 160.Bg3 Kc6 161.Be1 Kb5 162.Bc3 Kc6 163.Kc4 Kd7 164.Bb2 Ke6 165.Kb5 Kf5 166.Bc3 Ke4 167.Ka4 Kd3 168.Be1 Kc2 169.Bb4 Kd1 170.Kb5 Kc1 171.Ba3+ Kb1 172.Kc4 Ka1 173.Kb3 Kb1 174.Bb4 Kc1 175.Bd6 Kd1 176.Bh2 Ke2 177.Bg1 Ke1 178.Kc2 Ke2 179.Bb6 Kf3 180.Kd3 Kg4 181.Kc4 Kf3 182.Ba5 Ke2 183.Kc3 Kf1 184.Bb4 Kg2 185.Kc4 Kf2 186.Kd3 Kf1 187.Ke3 Kg2 188.Bd2 Kg3 189.Be1+ Kg4 190.Ke4 Kg5 191.Bd2+ Kg6 192.Ke5 Kf7 193.Bg5 Kg7 194.Kf5 1/2-1/2 {fifty move rule}

**1.d4** **d5** **2.c4** **c6** 3.cxd5 cxd5 4.Bf4 Nf6 5.e3 Nc6 6.Bd3 Bg4 7.Ne2 e6 8.O-O Bd6 9.Bxd6 Qxd6 10.Nbc3 Bxe2 11.Qxe2 O-O 12.Rac1 g6 13.a3 Rac8 14.Rc2 e5 15.dxe5 Qxe5 16.Rd2 Rfe8 17.Bb5 Kg7 18.Rfd1 Red8 19.Ba4 Na5 20.Rd3 a6 21.Bc2 b5 22.Bb1 Nc4 23.Ba2 Rc7 24.h3 Rcc8 25.Qc2 Rc5 26.Bxc4 bxc4 27.Rd4 Rb8 28.R1d2 Rb3 29.Qd1 Ne4 30.Nxe4 dxe4 31.Rxc4 Rxc4 32.Qxb3 Rc1+ 33.Rd1 Rxd1+ 34.Qxd1 Qxb2 35.a4 a5 36.g3 Qe5 37.Kg2 h5 38.h4 Kg8 39.Kf1 Qc3 40.Qd7 Kg7 41.Kg2 Qc5 42.Qe8 Qd5 43.Qe7 Qf5 44.Qd8 Qf3+ 45.Kg1 Qf5 46.Qd4+ f6 47.Qb2 Qd5 48.Kg2 Qf5 49.Qb7+ Kh6 50.Qb8 g5 51.Qf8+ Kg6 52.Qg8+ Kh6 53.hxg5+ fxg5 54.Qh8+ Kg6 55.Qe8+ Kh6 56.Qc6+ Kg7 57.Qd6 Kf7 58.Qd8 h4 59.gxh4 Qf3+ 60.Kf1 gxh4 61.Qxh4 Qd1+ 62.Kg2 Qxa4 63.Qh5+ Kf6 64.Kg3 Qb4 65.Qh8+ Ke6 66.Qc8+ Kd5 67.Qf5+ Kc6 68.Qc8+ Kd5 69.Qf5+ Kc6 70.Qc8+ Kd5 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** **d5** **2.c4** **dxc4** 3.e3 a6 4.Nf3 e6 5.Bxc4 c5 6.O-O Nf6 7.dxc5 Qxd1 8.Rxd1 Bxc5 9.Be2 b6 10.a3 Nbd7 11.Nbd2 O-O 12.b4 Be7 13.Bb2 Bb7 14.Rac1 Rfc8 15.Nc4 Bd5 16.Nce5 Nxe5 17.Nxe5 a5 18.b5 Rc5 19.Rxc5 Bxc5 20.Kf1 a4 21.g4 h6 22.Ke1 Kf8 23.h4 Ke8 24.h5 Rc8 25.Nc6 Kf8 26.Rc1 Nd7 27.Kf1 Ra8 28.Rc2 Kg8 29.Ke1 Bb3 30.Rc3 Bf8 31.Bf3 Re8 32.Bd1 Nc5 33.Bxb3 axb3 34.Nd4 Ra8 35.Bc1 Ra5 36.Nxb3 Rxb5 37.Nxc5 Bxc5 38.Rc4 Ra5 39.a4 Kf8 40.Ke2 Ke7 41.Bd2 Ra8 42.a5 Kd6 43.axb6 Bxb6 44.Bb4+ Kd7 45.Kf3 Bc7 46.Bc3 f6 47.Ke4 Ra2 48.f3 Rc2 49.Rd4+ Kc6 50.Rd3 Rh2 51.Rd1 Rh4 52.Rg1 Bd6 53.Rc1 Kd7 54.Kd3 Rh3 55.Rf1 Ke7 56.Ke4 Rh4 57.Rg1 Ke8 58.Rg2 Kf7 59.Ra2 f5+ 60.Kd3 fxg4 61.Ra7+ Ke8 62.fxg4 Rxg4 63.Bxg7 Rg5 64.Bxh6 Rd5+ 65.Ke2 Rxh5 66.Bg7 Rh7 67.Kd3 Bc5 68.Rc7 Bd6 69.Ra7 Bc5 70.Rc7 Bd6 71.Ra7 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** **d5** 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Be7 4.Bf4 Nf6 5.Nf3 O-O 6.Rc1 b6 7.cxd5 Nxd5 8.Nxd5 Qxd5 9.a3 c5 10.dxc5 bxc5 11.e3 Bb7 12.Qc2 Nd7 13.Be2 Qc6 14.O-O Rfd8 15.Rfd1 Nb6 16.b3 f6 17.a4 e5 18.Bg3 a5 19.Bb5 Qe4 20.Bd3 Rxd3 21.Qxd3 Qxd3 22.Rxd3 e4 23.Rdd1 exf3 24.Bd6 Bd8 25.Bxc5 fxg2 26.Rxd8+ Rxd8 27.Bxb6 Rd3 28.Bxa5 Rxb3 29.Ra1 Bf3 30.Bc7 Rb7 31.Bd8 Rb8 32.Be7 Kf7 33.Bc5 Ra8 34.a5 Ra6 35.Bb6 g5 36.h3 h5 37.Kh2 h4 38.e4 Bxe4 39.Ra3 Bb7 40.Rc3 Kg6 41.f3 Ra8 42.Rb3 Ba6 43.Kxg2 Re8 44.Bd4 Rd8 45.Bb2 Rd5 46.Bc3 Rd3 47.Kf2 Kf7 48.Ra3 Bc8 49.Ke2 Rd6 50.Kf2 Kg6 51.Bb4 Ra6 52.Kg2 Re6 53.Kg1 Ba6 54.Rb3 Re5 55.Bc3 Rc5 56.Kf2 Rc4 57.Bb2 Ra4 58.Bc3 Ra2+ 59.Kg1 Kh5 60.Rb6 Bc8 61.Rb5 Bd7 62.Rd5 Be6 63.Rc5 Rc2 64.a6 Bxh3 65.a7 Rg2+ 66.Kh1 Ra2 67.Bxf6 Rxa7 68.Rxg5+ Kh6 69.Rg8 Be6 70.Rh8+ Kg6 71.Bxh4 Bd5 72.Kg2 Ra8 73.Rxa8 Bxa8 74.Bg3 Kf7 75.Kf2 Bd5 76.Bh2 Ke6 77.Kg3 Kf6 78.Bg1 Ba2 79.Kf4 Ke6 80.Kg5 Bb1 81.f4 Kd5 82.f5 Bxf5 83.Kxf5 Kc4 84.Ke4 Kb3 85.Bd4 Ka2 86.Kd3 Kb3 87.Bc3 Ka2 88.Kc2 Ka3 89.Bb2+ Ka4 90.Bc1 Kb5 91.Kb3 Kc6 92.Be3 Kd6 93.Bf4+ Kc5 94.Bg3 Kc6 95.Be1 Kb5 96.Bc3 Kc6 97.Kc4 Kd7 98.Bb2 Ke6 99.Kb5 Kf5 100.Bc3 Ke4 101.Ka4 Kd3 102.Be1 Kc2 103.Bb4 Kd1 104.Kb5 Kc1 105.Ba3+ Kb1 106.Kc4 Ka1 107.Kb3 Kb1 108.Bb4 Kc1 109.Bd6 Kd1 110.Bh2 Ke2 111.Bg1 Ke1 112.Kc2 Ke2 113.Bb6 Kf3 114.Kd3 Kg4 115.Kc4 Kf3 116.Ba5 Ke2 117.Kc3 Kf1 118.Bb4 Kg2 119.Kc4 Kf2 120.Kd3 Kf1 121.Ke3 Kg2 122.Bd2 Kg3 123.Be1+ Kg4 124.Ke4 Kg5 125.Bd2+ Kg6 126.Ke5 Kf7 127.Bg5 Kg7 128.Kf5 Kg8 129.Bc1 Kf7 130.Bh6 Ke7 131.Be3 Kd6 132.Bg1 Ke7 133.Bf2 1/2-1/2 {fifty move rule}

**1.d4** **d6** 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4 e6 4.Nc3 d5 5.a3 c6 6.e3 Nbd7 7.Bd3 Be7 8.e4 dxe4 9.Nxe4 c5 10.Nxc5 Bxc5 11.dxc5 Nxc5 12.Bc2 Qxd1+ 13.Kxd1 b6 14.b4 Ncd7 15.Bb2 Bb7 16.Bb3 Bxf3+ 17.gxf3 Ke7 18.Kc2 Rhd8 19.Rhd1 Ne8 20.Rd3 Ndf6 21.a4 Nd6 22.Rad1 Rac8 23.Bc3 Nf5 24.Rxd8 Rxd8 25.Rxd8 Kxd8 26.Kd2 Nd7 27.f4 g6 28.Bc2 Nd6 29.Kd3 Nf5 30.Bd1 Kc7 31.Be5+ Kd8 32.Bf3 Ne7 33.Bd4 Nf5 34.Bc3 Kc8 35.Bg2 h6 36.Bc6 Nb8 37.Bf3 Nd7 38.Be5 Ne7 39.Kc2 Kd8 40.Kd2 a5 41.bxa5 Nxe5 42.fxe5 bxa5 43.c5 Kc7 44.Kd3 g5 45.Bh5 Ng6 46.Kd4 Kd7 47.Be2 Nf4 48.Bb5+ Kd8 49.Bc6 Nh3 50.Ke3 Nf4 51.Ke4 h5 52.Ke3 h4 53.Ke4 Ng6 54.Kd4 Nf4 55.Ke3 Kc7 56.Bb5 Nd5+ 57.Kd4 Kd8 58.Be2 Nf4 59.Bf1 Kc7 60.Bb5 Kd8 61.Bc6 Nh3 62.f3 Nf4 63.Bb5 Nd5 64.Bd3 Kc7 65.Be4 Nf4 66.Bh7 Ne2+ 67.Kd3 Nf4+ 68.Kc4 Ne2 69.Bg8 Ng1 70.Bxf7 Nxf3 71.Bxe6 g4 72.Kd5 Nxh2 73.Bf5 g3 74.e6 g2 75.e7 g1=Q 76.e8=Q Qd1+ 77.Kc4 Qc1+ 78.Kb3 Qd1+ 79.Kc4 Qc1+ 80.Kb3 Qd1+ 81.Kc4 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** **e6** 2.e4 d5 3.Nd2 c5 4.exd5 exd5 5.Ngf3 Nf6 6.Bb5+ Bd7 7.Bxd7+ Nbxd7 8.O-O Be7 9.dxc5 Nxc5 10.Nb3 Ne6 11.Nbd4 O-O 12.Re1 Nxd4 13.Qxd4 Re8 14.Be3 Qc7 15.c3 Bd6 16.g3 Re4 17.Qd2 Rae8 18.Bd4 Rxe1+ 19.Rxe1 Ne4 20.Qd3 a6 21.Kg2 Qc6 22.Be3 h5 23.Nd4 Qa4 24.a3 g6 25.Nc2 h4 26.Nb4 Bxb4 27.axb4 Qc6 28.Rd1 hxg3 29.hxg3 d4 30.cxd4 Qd5 31.f3 Nf6 32.Bd2 g5 33.Rf1 Kg7 34.Kg1 g4 35.fxg4 Nxg4 36.Rf5 Re5 37.Rf4 f5 38.Qf3 Qxf3 39.Rxf3 Re2 40.Bc3 Kg6 41.d5 Re3 42.Kg2 Re2+ 43.Kf1 Re3 44.Kg2 Re2+ 45.Kf1 Re3 46.Kg2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** **f5** 2.Bg5 h6 3.Bh4 g5 4.e3 Nf6 5.Bg3 e6 6.Nc3 d6 7.h4 Rg8 8.Qd2 Nc6 9.hxg5 hxg5 10.O-O-O Bd7 11.Bc4 d5 12.Bd3 Bd6 13.Bxd6 cxd6 14.f3 Qe7 15.e4 dxe4 16.fxe4 fxe4 17.Nxe4 O-O-O 18.Re1 Rdf8 19.Ng3 Qd8 20.Nf3 Qa5 21.Qxa5 Nxa5 22.Nd2 Nc6 23.Nde4 Ne8 24.c3 Ne7 25.Nh5 Bc6 26.Bc2 Nd5 27.Rh2 b6 28.a3 Kd7 29.g3 b5 30.g4 a5 31.Kd2 Nb6 32.Nhg3 Rf4 33.Bd1 Bd5 34.Kc1 Nf6 35.Nxf6+ Rxf6 36.Nf1 Kc6 37.Ne3 Be4 38.Nc2 d5 39.Be2 Rf4 40.Na1 b4 41.axb4 axb4 42.cxb4 Nc4 43.Rh6 Ra8 44.Nb3 Kb5 45.Na5 Kxb4 46.Nxc4 dxc4 47.Rxe6 Ra1+ 48.Kd2 Rxe1 49.Kxe1 Bd3 50.Bxd3 cxd3 51.Kd2 Kc4 52.Ke3 d2 53.Kxd2 Rxd4+ 54.Ke3 Rxg4 55.Re5 Rg1 56.Kf2 Rg4 57.Ke3 Rg1 58.Kf2 Rg4 59.Ke3 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** **Nf6** **2.c4** **c5** 3.d5 b5 4.cxb5 a6 5.bxa6 e6 6.Nc3 exd5 7.Nxd5 Be7 8.Nxe7 Qxe7 9.Bf4 d5 10.e3 O-O 11.Nf3 Rd8 12.Be2 Bxa6 13.O-O Nc6 14.Bxa6 Rxa6 15.Bg5 h6 16.Qe2 Raa8 17.Bxf6 Qxf6 18.Rfd1 c4 19.a3 Rab8 20.Rd2 Rb5 21.Rc1 Rdb8 22.Rcc2 Ra5 23.h3 Qg6 24.Qd1 Qe4 25.Kh1 Qg6 26.Qc1 Rb6 27.Kg1 Kh8 28.Rc3 Rab5 29.a4 Rb3 30.Kh2 Qd6+ 31.g3 Qe7 32.Rxb3 Rxb3 33.Qc2 Qe4 34.Qxe4 dxe4 35.Nd4 Nxd4 36.Rxd4 Rxb2 37.Kg2 c3 38.Rxe4 c2 39.Rc4 Ra2 40.Rc8+ Kh7 41.Rc7 Kg8 42.Kf3 h5 43.h4 f6 44.Kg2 Kh7 45.a5 Kg6 46.a6 Kh6 47.a7 Rxa7 48.Rxc2 g6 49.Rd2 Ra4 50.Rd6 Kg7 51.Kf3 g5 52.Rd4 g4+ 53.Ke4 Ra5 54.f3 gxf3 55.Kxf3 Kg6 56.Rd3 Rf5+ 57.Ke2 Ra5 58.Rc3 Kf5 59.Kf3 Kg6 60.Rb3 Ra1 61.Rb5 Ra4 62.e4 Ra1 63.Rb3 Rf1+ 64.Ke3 Rg1 65.Kf2 Ra1 66.Rb5 Ra3 67.Rf5 Ra1 68.Rd5 Ra3 69.Rb5 Rd3 70.Ra5 Rc3 71.Ra6 Kg7 72.Re6 Kf7 73.Rd6 Kg7 74.Rd5 Kg6 75.Ra5 Rb3 76.Rc5 Ra3 77.Rc6 Kf7 78.Rc7+ Kg6 79.Rc5 Rd3 80.Rc6 Kg7 81.Rc7+ Kg6 82.Rb7 Ra3 83.Rb4 Rd3 84.Ra4 Rb3 85.Ra6 Kg7 86.Ra2 Rc3 87.Re2 Kf7 88.Rd2 Rb3 89.Rd6 Ra3 90.Kg2 Kg7 91.Rd7+ Kg6 92.Kf2 Kh6 93.Rd2 Kg6 94.Kg2 Rb3 95.Rd4 Rc3 96.Kf2 Rb3 97.Rd6 Rb5 98.Kf3 Ra5 99.Kf4 Ra1 100.Rd3 Rf1+ 101.Ke3 Ra1 102.Kf3 Rf1+ 103.Ke2 Ra1 104.Rb3 Kh6 105.Re3 Ra5 106.Kf3 Kg6 107.Re1 Ra3+ 108.Kf4 Ra4 109.Rg1 Ra2 110.Rf1 Rg2 111.Kf3 Rh2 112.e5 fxe5 113.Ke4 Re2+ 114.Kd5 Re3 115.Rf8 Kg7 116.Rf5 Rxg3 117.Rxh5 Rg4 118.Rg5+ Rxg5 119.hxg5 Kg6 120.Ke4 Kxg5 121.Kxe5 Kg4 122.Ke4 Kg5 123.Kd5 Kf5 124.Kd6 Kg6 125.Kc5 Kf6 126.Kd4 Ke6 127.Ke3 Ke5 128.Kf3 Kf5 129.Ke3 Ke6 130.Ke4 Kf6 131.Kd5 Kf5 132.Kd6 Kg6 133.Kc5 Kf6 134.Kd4 Ke6 135.Ke3 Ke5 136.Kf3 Kf5 137.Ke3 Ke6 138.Ke4 Kf6 139.Kd5 Kf5 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e3 O-O 5.Nf3 b6 6.Bd3 d5 7.O-O Ba6 8.Qe2 c5 9.cxd5 Bxd3 10.Qxd3 cxd4 11.Nxd4 Nxd5 12.Nce2 Nf6 13.Bd2 Bxd2 14.Qxd2 e5 15.Nf3 Qxd2 16.Nxd2 Nc6 17.Nc3 Rfd8 18.Nc4 Ne8 19.Rad1 f6 20.g4 Kf7 21.f4 exf4 22.exf4 Nb4 23.b3 Nc7 24.g5 Nbd5 25.Ne4 fxg5 26.fxg5+ Kg8 27.h4 Nb5 28.a4 Nbc3 29.Rde1 b5 30.axb5 Nxb5 31.Nc5 Nd4 32.Ne6 Nxe6 33.Rxe6 Rab8 34.Rd1 Rxb3 35.Re5 Rc8 36.Nd6 Nc3 37.Ra1 Rf8 38.Rxa7 Rb1+ 39.Kh2 Rb2+ 40.Kh3 Ne2 41.Re8 Rb3+ 42.Kg2 Rg3+ 43.Kh2 Rxe8 44.Nxe8 Rg4 45.Kh3 Rg3+ 46.Kh2 Rg4 47.Kh3 Rg3+ 48.Kh2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.d4** **Nf6** **2.c4** **g6** 3.Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.e4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Bg7 7.Bc4 O-O 8.Be3 Nc6 9.Nf3 e5 10.Rc1 Qe7 11.d5 Na5 12.Bd3 f5 13.c4 b6 14.O-O f4 15.Bd2 Nb7 16.Ne1 a5 17.f3 Nc5 18.Bb1 Re8 19.Nd3 Bf8 20.Nxc5 Qxc5+ 21.Kh1 Qd4 22.Qe2 Bb4 23.Be1 Bxe1 24.Qxe1 Bd7 25.Rf2 a4 26.Re2 Qc5 27.Qc3 g5 28.Bd3 Kf7 29.a3 h5 30.Rec2 Re7 31.Rb2 Rg8 32.Qb4 Qe3 33.Qd2 Qc5 34.Qb4 Qe3 35.Qd2 Qc5 36.Qb4 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **c5** **2.Nc3** e6 3.Nge2 Nf6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 Nc6 6.Be2 d6 7.Be3 Be7 8.g4 d5 9.exd5 Nxd5 10.Nxd5 Qxd5 11.O-O Nxd4 12.Qxd4 Qxd4 13.Bxd4 Bf6 14.Rad1 Bd7 15.Bxf6 gxf6 16.f4 Rg8 17.Kf2 Ke7 18.h3 Bc6 19.Rg1 f5 20.c4 a5 21.gxf5 exf5 22.Rxg8 Rxg8 23.Bf3 a4 24.b4 axb3 25.axb3 Bxf3 26.Kxf3 h5 27.Kf2 h4 28.Rd5 Rg3 29.Re5+ Kd6 30.Re3 Rg8 31.Rd3+ Kc6 32.Rd5 Rg3 33.b4 Rxh3 34.Rxf5 Rc3 35.Rf6+ Kd7 36.Rxf7+ Kc6 37.Rf6+ Kc7 38.c5 Rc4 39.Kg2 Rxb4 40.Kh3 Rb5 41.Rf5 Kc6 42.Kxh4 Rxc5 43.Rxc5+ Kxc5 44.f5 Kd6 45.Kg5 Ke7 46.Kg6 Kf8 47.Kf6 b5 48.Ke5 Ke7 49.Kd5 Kf7 50.Kc5 Kf6 51.Kb4 Kxf5 52.Kxb5 Ke4 53.Kc4 Ke3 54.Kd5 Kd3 55.Ke5 Ke3 56.Kd5 Kd3 57.Ke5 Ke3 58.Kd5 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **c5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** 3.Nc3 e5 4.Bc4 Be7 5.d3 d6 6.Nd2 Bg5 7.Nf1 Bxc1 8.Qxc1 Be6 9.Ne3 Nge7 10.O-O O-O 11.f3 Qd7 12.Qd2 Rab8 13.a3 b6 14.Rae1 Nd4 15.Ncd5 Bxd5 16.Bxd5 Nxd5 17.Nxd5 Ne6 18.b4 Rfe8 19.Ne3 Rbc8 20.Rb1 b5 21.c3 Qc6 22.Rfc1 a6 23.g3 Ra8 24.Kg2 Qd7 25.Rf1 Rab8 26.Kh1 Rbc8 27.Kg1 Rc6 28.Rbd1 Rec8 29.Rc1 Qc7 30.Kg2 Qd8 31.Rc2 Qc7 32.Ra1 Qd7 33.Rac1 Re8 34.Rb1 h6 35.h4 Rec8 36.Ra1 Rd8 37.Rac1 Ra8 38.Rb2 Rc7 39.Rf1 Rc6 40.Rfb1 Rd8 41.Ra1 Nc7 42.c4 Rb6 43.Qc3 f6 44.cxb5 axb5 45.bxc5 dxc5 46.Qxc5 Rc6 47.Qb4 Rd6 48.Rd1 Rxd3 49.Rxd3 Qxd3 50.Nf5 Qd7 51.h5 Qf7 52.Qc5 Rd7 53.Qc6 Kh7 54.g4 Rd1 55.Nd6 Qe7 56.Nf5 Qf7 57.Nd6 Qe7 58.Nf5 Qf7 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **c5** 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nf6 4.Nc3 cxd4 5.Nxd4 a6 6.Be3 e5 7.Nf3 Be7 8.Bc4 O-O 9.O-O Nc6 10.Bb3 Be6 11.Qd3 Rc8 12.Bg5 Na5 13.Rfd1 Nxb3 14.axb3 Rc6 15.Qe2 Qc8 16.Ne1 h6 17.Nd5 Nxd5 18.exd5 Bxg5 19.dxc6 Qxc6 20.c4 Qb6 21.Ra3 Be7 22.Nc2 d5 23.Raa1 dxc4 24.bxc4 Qxb2 25.Rab1 Qa2 26.Rxb7 Bg5 27.g3 Rc8 28.h4 Bf6 29.Ra1 Qxc4 30.Qxc4 Bxc4 31.Ne3 Bd3 32.Ng4 e4 33.Nxf6+ gxf6 34.g4 Rc5 35.Kg2 f5 36.Kg3 fxg4 37.Kxg4 Rc2 38.Kg3 Rc6 39.Rg1 Rf6 40.f4 exf3 41.Kf2+ Kh7 42.Rb4 Be2 43.h5 Rf5 44.Rbg4 Rg5 45.Rxg5 hxg5 46.Rxg5 Kh6 47.Rf5 Bd1 48.Rc5 Be2 49.Re5 Bd1 50.Rf5 Be2 51.Kg3 f2 52.Rxf2 Bxh5 53.Kf4 a5 54.Ra2 Kg6 55.Rxa5 f6 56.Ra1 Kf7 57.Ra7+ Ke6 58.Ra6+ Kf7 59.Rb6 Bd1 60.Rb7+ Ke6 61.Ke4 Bc2+ 62.Kf3 Ke5 63.Rb5+ Ke6 64.Ra5 Bd1+ 65.Kf4 Bb3 66.Ke4 Bc2+ 67.Ke3 Bg6 68.Kf4 Kd6 69.Kf3 Be8 70.Ra1 Bg6 71.Kf4 Bc2 72.Ke3 Bb3 73.Ra5 Ke6 74.Kf4 Bc2 75.Rc5 Ba4 76.Ke4 Be8 77.Rc1 Ba4 78.Ra1 Bc6+ 79.Kf4 Bb5 80.Ra5 Bd7 81.Ra6+ Kf7 82.Rd6 Ke7 83.Rb6 Kf7 84.Ke3 Ke7 85.Ra6 Bb5 86.Ra5 Be8 87.Kf4 Kd6 88.Kf5 Ke7 89.Ra6 Bd7+ 90.Ke4 Bc8 91.Ra1 Bb7+ 92.Kf5 Bc8+ 93.Kg6 f5 94.Re1+ Kd6 95.Kf6 Kd5 96.Kg5 f4 97.Kxf4 Bd7 98.Ra1 Bc6 99.Ra6 Be8 100.Ra5+ Kd4 101.Ra8 Bf7 102.Rd8+ Bd5 103.Rd6 Kc5 104.Ke5 Bb3 105.Rd2 Kc4 106.Kd6 Ba4 107.Ra2 Bd1 108.Rb2 Kd3 109.Rb1 Bc2 110.Rc1 Bb3 111.Ke5 Ba2 112.Rd1+ Kc4 113.Rd4+ Kc5 114.Rd7 Kc4 115.Rc7+ Kd3 116.Rb7 Kc4 117.Ke4 Kc5 118.Rb2 Bf7 119.Rc2+ Kd6 120.Kf5 Bb3 121.Rb2 Bf7 122.Rb1 Ba2 123.Rd1+ Kc5 124.Kg4 Kc4 125.Rd2 Bb3 126.Kg3 Ba4 127.Kf2 Bb3 128.Ke3 Kc5 129.Kd3 Bd5 130.Rd1 Ba2 131.Ra1 Bg8 132.Rg1 Ba2 133.Rd1 Kd5 134.Ke3+ Ke5 135.Ra1 Bc4 136.Rg1 Be6 137.Rg5+ Bf5 138.Rh5 Ke6 139.Kf2 Bb1 140.Ra5 Bc2 141.Ke3 Bb1 142.Ra1 Bc2 143.Rc1 Ba4 144.Rc4 Bb3 145.Rc3 Bd1 146.Kd2 Ba4 147.Rc1 1/2-1/2 {fifty move rule}

**1.e4** **c5** **2.Nf3** **e6** 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.Bb5 Nd4 5.O-O a6 6.Bd3 Nxf3+ 7.Qxf3 Qc7 8.b3 Bd6 9.Qh3 Ne7 10.Bb2 b5 11.a4 c4 12.Be2 b4 13.Nd1 Bb7 14.Bf3 O-O 15.Ne3 c3 16.dxc3 bxc3 17.Ba3 Bxa3 18.Rxa3 Rad8 19.Qg3 d6 20.b4 f5 21.exf5 Bxf3 22.Qxf3 d5 23.Qg3 Qxg3 24.hxg3 d4 25.Nc4 Rxf5 26.Rb3 Rfd5 27.Nb6 R5d6 28.Nc4 Rd5 29.Nb6 R5d6 30.Nc4 Rd5 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **c6** 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Bf5 5.Ng3 Bg6 6.Nf3 Nf6 7.Bd3 Bxd3 8.Qxd3 e6 9.O-O Bd6 10.Re1 O-O 11.Ne4 Be7 12.Nxf6+ Bxf6 13.Bf4 Re8 14.c3 Nd7 15.Rad1 Qa5 16.a3 Qf5 17.Qxf5 exf5 18.Rxe8+ Rxe8 19.Kf1 Nb6 20.Re1 Rxe1+ 21.Nxe1 Kf8 22.Ke2 g5 23.Bb8 a6 24.f4 h6 25.Kd3 Ke8 26.Nc2 Nd5 27.g3 Kd7 28.c4 Ne7 29.a4 Kc8 30.Bd6 Kd7 31.Bc5 gxf4 32.gxf4 h5 33.Bb4 Ng6 34.Ke3 Ne7 35.b3 Ng6 36.Ne1 Bd8 37.Nd3 Bb6 38.h3 Bd8 39.Bc5 Bc7 40.Kf3 Ke6 41.Bb4 Kd7 42.Bc3 Nf8 43.Nc5+ Kc8 44.Ke3 Ne6 45.Nd3 Kd7 46.a5 Bb8 47.Bb4 Ba7 48.Ne5+ Ke8 49.Bc3 Ke7 50.Nd3 Bb8 51.b4 Ke8 52.Ba1 Ke7 53.Bb2 Kd7 54.Ne5+ Ke7 55.Bc3 Bd6 56.Bd2 Nc7 57.Be1 Ke6 58.Nd3 Kd7 59.Nc5+ Kc8 60.Bh4 Bf8 61.Nd3 Ne8 62.d5 cxd5 63.cxd5 Bg7 64.Ne5 Bf8 65.Be1 Nd6 66.Kd4 Kc7 67.Kd3 Kd8 68.Bc3 Ke8 69.Nf3 Ne4 70.Nh4 Nxc3 71.Kxc3 Bd6 72.Nxf5 Bxf4 73.Kd4 Kd7 74.Kc5 Bh2 75.Kb6 Kc8 76.Ka7 Bf4 77.d6 Bd2 78.d7+ Kxd7 79.Kxb7 Bxb4 80.Kb6 Be1 81.Kxa6 Kc6 82.Nh6 f6 83.Nf5 Bf2 84.Ng7 h4 85.Nf5 Kd5 86.Kb5 Ke5 87.Ne7 f5 88.Ng6+ Ke4 89.a6 f4 90.Nxh4 f3 91.Nxf3 Kxf3 92.Kc6 Kg3 93.Kb7 Kxh3 94.Kc6 Bg1 95.Kc7 Bf2 96.Kc6 Bg1 97.Kc7 Bf2 98.Kc6 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **d5** 2.exd5 Qxd5 3.Nc3 Qd8 4.d4 e6 5.Bd3 Nf6 6.Nf3 b6 7.O-O Be7 8.Ne4 Bb7 9.Nxf6+ Bxf6 10.Qe2 O-O 11.Rd1 Nc6 12.Qe4 g6 13.c3 Qc8 14.Qe2 Bg7 15.Bg5 Re8 16.Ne5 h6 17.Bh4 Ne7 18.f3 Nd5 19.Bc2 c5 20.Ba4 Rf8 21.Rac1 g5 22.Bg3 cxd4 23.Rxd4 Nf4 24.Rxf4 gxf4 25.Bxf4 Qc5+ 26.Kh1 Rfd8 27.Bb3 Bd5 28.Bc2 Bxa2 29.Ra1 Bd5 30.Qe1 Qb5 31.b4 Qe8 32.Qg3 Kf8 33.h3 f6 34.Ng6+ Kg8 35.Bd6 f5 36.Ne7+ Kh8 37.Nxd5 exd5 38.Bc7 Bxc3 39.Ra3 Qe1+ 40.Qxe1 Bxe1 41.Bxd8 Rxd8 42.Rxa7 d4 43.Bxf5 d3 44.Rd7 Rxd7 45.Bxd7 Bxb4 46.f4 h5 47.g3 d2 48.Ba4 h4 49.Kg2 b5 50.Bd1 Bd6 51.Kf3 hxg3 52.Kxg3 Be7 53.Kf3 Bh4 54.Kg4 Bf2 55.Kf3 Bh4 56.Kg4 Bf2 57.Kf3 Bh4 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **d6** 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 Nbd7 4.f4 e5 5.Nf3 exd4 6.Qxd4 c6 7.Be3 d5 8.exd5 Bc5 9.Qd3 Qe7 10.Nd4 Ng4 11.Nf5 Nde5 12.Nxe7 Nxd3+ 13.Bxd3 Nxe3 14.Nxc8 Rxc8 15.Na4 cxd5 16.Kf2 Nc4+ 17.Nxc5 Rxc5 18.b3 Nb2 19.Rhe1+ Kd7 20.Bf5+ Kd6 21.Re2 d4 22.Be4 Re8 23.Bxh7 Rxe2+ 24.Kxe2 g6 25.Rc1 Rh5 26.Bg8 Ke6 27.h3 Rh8 28.Bxf7+ Kxf7 29.Rb1 Re8+ 30.Kd2 Re3 31.Rxb2 Rg3 32.a4 b6 33.a5 Ke6 34.axb6 axb6 35.Rb1 Rxg2+ 36.Kd3 Kd5 37.Re1 Rg3+ 38.Kd2 Rg2+ 39.Kd1 Kc5 40.Re2 Rg3 41.Re5+ Kb4 42.Kd2 b5 43.Rd5 Rxh3 44.Rxd4+ Ka3 45.Rd5 Kb4 46.Rd8 Rf3 47.Rd4+ Ka3 48.Rd5 Kb4 49.Rg5 Rxf4 50.Kc1 Rf1+ 51.Kb2 Ka5 52.Rxg6 b4 53.Rg2 Kb5 54.Rg3 Rf2 55.Rg8 Rf1 56.Rg2 Kc5 57.Rh2 Kc6 58.Re2 Rf6 59.Kc1 Kb5 60.Re5+ Kb6 61.Kb2 Rf1 62.Re8 Kc5 63.Re4 Kb5 64.Rh4 Rf5 65.Rh8 Rf2 66.Rb8+ Kc5 67.Kc1 Rg2 68.Rb7 Rf2 69.Kb2 Rf1 70.Rg7 Kc6 71.Rg6+ Kb5 72.Rg5+ Kb6 73.Rg4 Kb5 74.Rg8 Rf2 75.Rg5+ Kb6 76.Kc1 Rh2 77.Rf5 Kc6 78.Re5 Rg2 79.Re4 Kc5 80.Kb2 Rf2 81.Rh4 Kb5 82.Rh5+ Kc6 83.Rh6+ Kc5 84.Rh1 Kb6 85.Kc1 Kc6 86.Rh4 Kb5 87.Re4 Kc5 88.Re5+ Kb6 89.Re6+ Kb5 90.Kd1 Rg2 91.Re5+ Kc6 92.Re2 Rg5 93.Kd2 Kc5 94.Re3 Rg8 95.c4 bxc3+ 96.Kxc3 Rc8 97.Re5+ Kd6+ 98.Kd4 Rc1 99.Rd5+ Kc6 100.Rf5 Kb6 101.b4 Rg1 102.Kc4 Rg4+ 103.Kb3 Rg1 104.Rf8 Rb1+ 105.Kc3 Rc1+ 106.Kb2 Rg1 107.Rf5 Rg3 108.Rh5 Kc6 109.Kc2 Kb6 110.Rd5 Rg4 111.Kb3 Rg6 112.Ka4 Kb7 113.Rd7+ Kc8 114.Ra7 Kb8 115.Ra5 Kb7 116.Rb5+ Ka7 117.Rf5 Kb6 118.Rf4 Ka7 119.Rf8 Rb6 120.Rf7+ Ka8 121.Rd7 Kb8 122.Rd8+ Kc7 123.Ra8 Kb7 124.Re8 Rc6 125.Re7+ Kb6 126.Re4 Rf6 127.Re5 Rg6 128.Re3 Ka7 129.Re7+ Kb6 130.Re5 Kb7 131.Re4 Rc6 132.b5 Rc1 133.Ka5 Ra1+ 134.Kb4 Rb1+ 135.Kc5 Rc1+ 136.Rc4 Rh1 137.Rc2 Rf1 138.Ra2 Rf5+ 139.Kb4 Rf6 140.Ra1 Rf4+ 141.Ka5 Rf2 142.Rc1 Ra2+ 143.Kb4 Rb2+ 144.Kc5 Re2 145.Rd1 Rc2+ 146.Kb4 Rb2+ 147.Ka4 Ra2+ 148.Kb3 Re2 149.Rd6 Re1 150.Rg6 Rb1+ 151.Kc4 Rc1+ 152.Kd5 Rd1+ 153.Ke4 Rb1 154.Rg5 Rh1 155.Kf5 Rh4 156.Kf6 Rh6+ 157.Kf7 Kb6 158.Rf5 Rh1 159.Ke7 Re1+ 160.Kf6 Rh1 161.Rd5 Rb1 162.Ke5 Rxb5 163.Rxb5+ Kxb5 164.Kd5 Kb4 165.Ke4 Kc5 166.Kd3 Kd5 167.Ke3 Ke5 168.Kf3 Kf5 169.Ke3 Ke6 170.Ke4 Kf6 171.Kd5 Kf5 172.Kd6 Kg6 173.Kc5 Kf6 174.Kd4 Ke6 175.Ke3 Ke5 176.Kf3 Kf5 177.Ke3 Ke6 178.Ke4 Kf6 179.Kd5 Kf5 180.Kd6 Kg6 181.Kc5 Kf6 182.Kd4 Ke6 183.Ke3 Ke5 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.f4** exf4 3.Bc4 Qh4+ 4.Kf1 d6 5.Nf3 Qf6 6.Nc3 Ne7 7.d4 Bg4 8.h4 Nbc6 9.Ne2 h6 10.Nxf4 Bxf3 11.gxf3 Nxd4 12.Be3 Ne6 13.Nd5 Qe5 14.Qd2 c6 15.Nf4 d5 16.Rd1 O-O-O 17.Nxe6 fxe6 18.Bxa7 Qc7 19.exd5 exd5 20.Qe3 Nf5 21.Qe6+ Qd7 22.Qxd7+ Rxd7 23.Bd3 Ng3+ 24.Kg2 Nxh1 25.Bf5 Be7 26.Rxh1 Rf8 27.Bxd7+ Kxd7 28.Bd4 h5 29.c3 g6 30.a3 b5 31.Be5 Ra8 32.f4 Ke6 33.Kg3 Ra4 34.Bd4 c5 35.Re1+ Kf7 36.Be3 d4 37.cxd4 cxd4 38.Bd2 Bf6 39.Bb4 Ra6 40.b3 Rc6 41.f5 Rc2 42.fxg6+ Kxg6 43.Kf4 Bxh4 44.Rg1+ Kf6 45.Ke4 Re2+ 46.Kd3 Rh2 47.a4 Rh3+ 48.Kc2 d3+ 49.Kc3 Rf3 50.axb5 Bf2 51.Rh1 Kg5 52.Be7+ Kg4 53.b4 Bg3 54.Rg1 Kf5 55.b6 Be5+ 56.Kb3 Ke6 57.Bg5 Rg3 58.Rxg3 Bxg3 59.Kc3 h4 60.Bxh4 Bxh4 61.b7 Bg3 62.Kxd3 Kd5 63.b5 Bh2 64.Ke2 Kc4 65.Kd1 Kxb5 66.Ke1 Kb6 67.b8=Q+ Bxb8 68.Kd1 Bg3 69.Kc2 Kb7 70.Kd1 Be5 71.Kc1 Bf4+ 72.Kb2 Ka6 73.Ka1 Be5+ 74.Kb1 Ka5 75.Kc2 Ka4 76.Kd3 Ba1 77.Ke2 Bb2 78.Kd3 Bc1 79.Kc2 Ba3 80.Kd1 Bb2 81.Ke2 Kb5 82.Kf1 Bc1 83.Ke1 Ba3 84.Ke2 Bb4 85.Kd1 Kc5 86.Kc1 Be1 87.Kb1 Bc3 88.Kc2 Kc4 89.Kc1 Ba1 90.Kb1 Bg7 91.Kc1 Bh6+ 92.Kb2 Bf8 93.Ka2 Be7 94.Ka1 Bf6+ 95.Kb1 Kb3 96.Kc1 Bb2+ 97.Kb1 Ba3 98.Ka1 Bb4 99.Kb1 Bd2 100.Ka1 Be1 101.Kb1 Bf2 102.Ka1 Bd4+ 103.Kb1 Be5 104.Kc1 Bf4+ 105.Kb1 Bg3 106.Kc1 Kc4 107.Kc2 Bf4 108.Kb2 Be5+ 109.Kc1 Kd3 110.Kb1 Bg7 111.Kc1 Ke4 112.Kc2 Ba1 113.Kd1 Be5 114.Kc2 Bf6 115.Kb1 Ke3 116.Kc2 Ke4 117.Kb1 Ke3 1/2-1/2 {fifty move rule}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** **3.Bb5** **a6** **4.Ba4** Be7 5.O-O Nf6 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.d3 Bd6 8.a4 Qe7 9.Nbd2 Be6 10.b3 O-O 11.Qe2 Nd7 12.Bb2 f6 13.h3 Qf7 14.Nh4 Rfe8 15.Nf5 Bc5 16.Rfd1 Rad8 17.Qg4 Kh8 18.Qf3 Nf8 19.Bc3 Ng6 20.Nf1 Bxf5 21.Qxf5 Nf4 22.Qg4 b6 23.Bd2 h5 24.Qf3 Ne6 25.Re1 a5 26.Ne3 Bd4 27.Rac1 Bc5 28.Nc4 Kg8 29.Qd1 Bb4 30.h4 Bxd2 31.Qxd2 Qd7 32.Re3 g6 33.Ree1 Nd4 34.Ne3 Kg7 35.Ra1 Qd6 36.Nc4 Qe6 37.f3 Qe7 38.Rab1 Ne6 39.g3 Qb4 40.Qf2 Nd4 41.Rbc1 Qc5 42.Kg2 Rf8 43.f4 b5 44.Ne3 exf4 45.Qxf4 Rd7 46.Qf2 Qd6 47.Rf1 f5 48.exf5 Nxf5 49.Nxf5+ Rxf5 50.Qd2 Qd5+ 51.Kh2 Rdf7 52.Rxf5 Qxf5 53.Qc3+ Rf6 54.axb5 Qf2+ 55.Kh3 Qf5+ 56.Kh2 Qf2+ 57.Kh3 Qf5+ 58.Kh2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** **3.Bb5** **a6** **4.Ba4** **Nf6** 5.d3 Bc5 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.O-O Bd6 8.a4 Qe7 9.Nbd2 Be6 10.b3 O-O 11.Qe2 Nd7 12.Bb2 f6 13.h3 Qf7 14.Nh4 Rfe8 15.Nf5 Bc5 16.Rfd1 Rad8 17.Qg4 Kh8 18.Qf3 Nf8 19.Bc3 Ng6 20.Nf1 Bxf5 21.Qxf5 Nf4 22.Qg4 b6 23.Bd2 h5 24.Qf3 Ne6 25.Re1 a5 26.Ne3 Bd4 27.Rac1 Bc5 28.Nc4 Kg8 29.Qd1 Bb4 30.h4 Bxd2 31.Qxd2 Qd7 32.Re3 g6 33.Ree1 Nd4 34.Ne3 Kg7 35.Ra1 Qd6 36.Nc4 Qe6 37.f3 Qe7 38.Rab1 Ne6 39.g3 Qb4 40.Qf2 Nd4 41.Rbc1 Qc5 42.Kg2 Rf8 43.f4 b5 44.Ne3 exf4 45.Qxf4 Rd7 46.Qf2 Qd6 47.Rf1 f5 48.exf5 Nxf5 49.Nxf5+ Rxf5 50.Qd2 Qd5+ 51.Kh2 Rdf7 52.Rxf5 Qxf5 53.Qc3+ Rf6 54.axb5 Qf2+ 55.Kh3 Qf5+ 56.Kh2 Qf2+ 57.Kh3 Qf5+ 58.Kh2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** **3.Bb5** **a6** **4.Ba4** **Nf6** **5.O-O** Be7 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.d3 Bd6 8.a4 Qe7 9.Nbd2 Be6 10.b3 O-O 11.Qe2 Nd7 12.Bb2 f6 13.h3 Qf7 14.Nh4 Rfe8 15.Nf5 Bc5 16.Rfd1 Rad8 17.Qg4 Kh8 18.Qf3 Nf8 19.Bc3 Ng6 20.Nf1 Bxf5 21.Qxf5 Nf4 22.Qg4 b6 23.Bd2 h5 24.Qf3 Ne6 25.Re1 a5 26.Ne3 Bd4 27.Rac1 Bc5 28.Nc4 Kg8 29.Qd1 Bb4 30.h4 Bxd2 31.Qxd2 Qd7 32.Re3 g6 33.Ree1 Nd4 34.Ne3 Kg7 35.Ra1 Qd6 36.Nc4 Qe6 37.f3 Qe7 38.Rab1 Ne6 39.g3 Qb4 40.Qf2 Nd4 41.Rbc1 Qc5 42.Kg2 Rf8 43.f4 b5 44.Ne3 exf4 45.Qxf4 Rd7 46.Qf2 Qd6 47.Rf1 f5 48.exf5 Nxf5 49.Nxf5+ Rxf5 50.Qd2 Qd5+ 51.Kh2 Rdf7 52.Rxf5 Qxf5 53.Qc3+ Rf6 54.axb5 Qf2+ 55.Kh3 Qf5+ 56.Kh2 Qf2+ 57.Kh3 Qf5+ 58.Kh2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** **3.Bb5** **a6** **4.Ba4** **Nf6** **5.O-O** **Be7** **6.Re1** b5 7.Bb3 O-O 8.c3 d6 9.h3 Na5 10.Bc2 c5 11.d4 Nd7 12.Nbd2 Bb7 13.d5 Nb6 14.Nh2 Kh8 15.b3 f5 16.c4 f4 17.Qe2 Qe8 18.Bd3 bxc4 19.bxc4 Bc8 20.Nb3 Nb7 21.Bd2 Bd8 22.Rab1 Kg8 23.Na1 Qa4 24.Rb2 Na5 25.Rc1 Rf7 26.Nb3 Nxb3 27.axb3 Qe8 28.Ra2 Rfa7 29.Rca1 Nd7 30.Bc2 Nf6 31.Bc3 g5 32.b4 Bb6 33.Rb1 Rg7 34.bxc5 Bxc5 35.Bb4 Ba7 36.Bxd6 g4 37.Nxg4 Nxg4 38.c5 Nh6 39.Ba4 Qg6 40.Qf3 Nf5 41.Be8 Nd4 42.Bxg6 Nxf3+ 43.gxf3 Rxg6+ 44.Kh2 Rh6 45.Bxe5 Bxc5 46.Bxf4 Rf6 47.Be5 Rxf3 48.Kg2 Rd3 49.Rc2 Bd4 50.Bxd4 Rxd4 51.Kf3 Rd3+ 52.Kf4 Bxh3 53.Rg1+ Kh8 54.Rc7 Rf8+ 55.Ke5 Re8+ 56.Kf4 Rg8 57.Rxg8+ Kxg8 58.Ra7 Bg2 59.Ra8+ Kf7 60.Rxa6 h5 61.Ra7+ Ke8 62.Rh7 Rd4 63.f3 Rd3 64.Rxh5 Rxf3+ 65.Ke5 Re3 66.Kd6 Rxe4 67.Re5+ Rxe5 68.Kxe5 Bf1 69.Kd4 Be2 70.d6 Kd7 71.Ke3 Bd1 72.Kd2 Bh5 73.Kc1 Kxd6 74.Kd2 Bg6 75.Kc1 Kc5 76.Kd2 Bf7 77.Ke2 Bc4+ 78.Kd1 Ba2 79.Kd2 Bd5 80.Kc1 Kd4 81.Kb2 Bh1 82.Ka1 Bc6 83.Kb2 Ke3 84.Ka1 Bb5 85.Kb2 Bd3 86.Kc3 Bb1 87.Kb2 Bf5 88.Ka1 Kd2 89.Kb2 Be6 90.Ka1 Kd1 91.Kb2 Bf5 92.Ka1 Kc1 93.Ka2 Bb1+ 94.Ka1 Bd3 95.Ka2 Bf1 96.Ka1 Bh3 97.Ka2 Be6+ 98.Ka3 Bc8 99.Kb4 Bh3 100.Ka3 Bf1 101.Ka4 Kb1 102.Ka3 Bg2 103.Kb4 Kb2 104.Kc5 Kc3 105.Kd6 Bh1 106.Ke5 Bf3 107.Kf6 Be4 108.Ke5 Bd3 109.Kf6 Kd4 110.Kg7 Bc4 111.Kh6 Bf1 112.Kg5 Ke4 113.Kg4 Be2+ 114.Kg3 Ke3 115.Kh4 Kf4 116.Kh3 Bd1 117.Kg2 Ke3 118.Kg1 Be2 119.Kg2 Bf1+ 120.Kxf1 Kf3 121.Ke1 Ke3 122.Kf1 Kf3 123.Ke1 Ke3 124.Kf1 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **Nc6** **3.Bb5** a6 4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.O-O Bd6 6.d4 exd4 7.Qxd4 f6 8.Be3 Be6 9.Nbd2 Ne7 10.Qc3 Qd7 11.Rad1 Ng6 12.Nd4 O-O-O 13.f3 Rhe8 14.Nxe6 Qxe6 15.Nc4 Bf4 16.b3 b6 17.a4 c5 18.Bxf4 Nxf4 19.Kf2 Kb7 20.Rd2 Qf7 21.Rfd1 Qh5 22.Rxd8 Qh4+ 23.Kf1 Qxh2 24.R8d2 Rxe4 25.Ne3 Re5 26.a5 Rh5 27.Ng4 Qg3 28.Kg1 Nh3+ 29.Kf1 Nf4 30.Kg1 Nh3+ 31.Kf1 Nf4 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d3 Nf6 5.O-O O-O 6.c3 d6 7.a4 a5 8.Re1 Be6 9.Bxe6 fxe6 10.Be3 Bxe3 11.Rxe3 Qd7 12.h3 h6 13.Na3 Rad8 14.Nb5 Rf7 15.Rc1 Rdf8 16.d4 exd4 17.cxd4 Qd8 18.Nc3 Nd7 19.d5 exd5 20.Nxd5 Nde5 21.Rcc3 Kh7 22.Nxe5 dxe5 23.Rf3 Nd4 24.Rxf7 Rxf7 25.Ne3 b6 26.Rd3 Rd7 27.Kh1 Qf6 28.f3 Qe6 29.Rc3 c6 30.Nc4 Nb5 31.Rd3 Nd4 32.Rc3 Nb5 33.Rd3 Nd4 34.Rc3 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **d6** 3.d4 Nf6 4.dxe5 Nxe4 5.Qd5 Nc5 6.Bg5 Qd7 7.exd6 Bxd6 8.Nc3 O-O 9.O-O-O Nc6 10.Be3 Qe7 11.Qh5 Be6 12.Bb5 Nd7 13.Nd5 Bxd5 14.Qxd5 Nf6 15.Qf5 g6 16.Qh3 Qe4 17.Nd2 Qg4 18.Qxg4 Nxg4 19.Nc4 Rfd8 20.Bxc6 bxc6 21.Rd3 Nxe3 22.fxe3 Bc5 23.g3 Re8 24.Rd7 Rac8 25.Rf1 f5 26.b3 Re7 27.Rxe7 Bxe7 28.Rd1 c5 29.Rd5 Kf7 30.e4 fxe4 31.Kd2 Rd8 32.Rxd8 Bxd8 33.Ke3 Bf6 34.Kxe4 Ke6 35.Na5 Kd6 36.g4 Be7 37.Nc4+ Ke6 38.Nd2 Kd6 39.h3 Bf6 40.Nf3 h6 41.Nd2 Ke6 42.Nf1 Bd4 43.Ng3 Bf6 44.Ne2 Be5 45.Nc1 Bd6 46.Nd3 Kf6 47.Ne1 h5 48.Nf3 hxg4 49.hxg4 Ke6 50.Kd3 Kd5 51.Nh4 g5 52.Nf3 Bf4 53.c4+ Ke6 54.Ke4 c6 55.Ne1 Bd6 56.Nd3 Kf6 57.Ke3 Be7 58.Kf3 Ke6 59.Ke4 Bd6 60.Ke3 Be7 61.Kf3 a6 62.Ke3 Bf8 63.Nf2 Ke5 64.Nh3 Be7 65.Ng1 Bd6 66.Nf3+ Kf6 67.Kf2 Bf8 68.Ne1 Ke5 69.Ke3 Kf6 70.Ke4 Bd6 71.Nd3 Ke6 72.Nc1 Bf4 73.Ne2 Be5 74.Kf3 Bd6 75.Nc3 Be7 76.Ne4 Ke5 77.Ke3 Ke6 78.a3 a5 79.Nf2 Bd6 80.Nd3 Kf6 81.Ke4 Ke6 82.Kf3 Be7 83.Ke3 Bf8 84.Kf2 Bd6 85.Ke2 Bf8 86.Ke3 Be7 87.Kf3 Bf8 88.Ke2 Kf6 89.Kd1 Be7 90.Kd2 Bd6 91.Ke3 Kf7 92.a4 Kf6 93.Ke4 Ke6 94.Kf3 Kf6 95.Nf2 Ke5 96.Ne4 Be7 97.Ke3 Bf8 98.Nd2 Bd6 99.Nb1 Be7 100.Nc3 Bd6 101.Ne2 Kf6 102.Ng1 Bf4+ 103.Ke4 Bd6 104.Kd3 Bf4 105.Nf3 Bc7 106.Ke2 Bf4 107.Kf2 Bc7 108.Ne1 Ke5 109.Ke3 Bd6 110.Nf3+ Kf6 111.Kd2 Be5 112.Ng1 Bd6 113.Nh3 Bf4+ 114.Ke2 Ke6 115.Nf2 Ke5 116.Kd3 Bh2 117.Nh3 Bf4 118.Ng1 Kf6 119.Nf3 Bc7 120.Ke2 Bf4 121.Kf2 Bc7 122.Ne1 Ke5 123.Ke3 Bd6 124.Nf3+ Kf6 125.Kd2 Be5 126.Ng1 Bd6 127.Nh3 Bf4+ 128.Ke2 Ke6 129.Nf2 Ke5 130.Kd3 Bh2 131.Nh3 Bf4 132.Ng1 Kf6 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **e5** **2.Nf3** **Nf6** 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4 5.d4 d5 6.Bd3 Be7 7.O-O Nc6 8.Nbd2 Nd6 9.c3 Bf5 10.Nb3 Bxd3 11.Qxd3 O-O 12.Bf4 a5 13.Rae1 Ne4 14.Qb5 a4 15.Nbd2 f5 16.Qxb7 Qd7 17.Qxc7 Qxc7 18.Bxc7 Rfc8 19.Bg3 a3 20.bxa3 Nxc3 21.Nb1 Nb5 22.h3 g5 23.h4 g4 24.Ne5 Nbxd4 25.Nc3 Ra5 26.Nd7 Rd8 27.Rxe7 Nxe7 28.Bc7 Rxd7 29.Bxa5 Ndc6 30.Bb6 d4 31.Rd1 Ng6 32.Na4 Rb7 33.Rb1 Rb8 34.Rc1 Nge5 35.Bc7 Rb7 36.Bxe5 Nxe5 37.Rd1 f4 38.Nc5 Rb2 39.Nd3 Nxd3 40.Rxd3 Rb1+ 41.Kh2 Rf1 42.Rd2 Kf7 43.a4 Ke6 44.a5 Kd5 45.a6 g3+ 46.fxg3 fxg3+ 47.Kxg3 Rf6 48.h5 Rxa6 49.Kf3 Ra3+ 50.Ke2 Ke4 51.Kd1 h6 52.Rb2 Kf4 53.Kd2 Kg4 54.Ke2 Kxh5 55.Rd2 Kg5 56.Rxd4 Rxa2+ 57.Kf3 Ra3+ 58.Kf2 Ra5 59.Rd8 h5 60.Kf3 Ra3+ 61.Ke4 Ra2 62.Kf3 Ra5 63.Rg8+ Kf5 64.Rf8+ Kg6 65.Rg8+ Kf7 66.Rb8 Ra3+ 67.Ke4 Ra4+ 68.Ke3 Kf6 69.Kf3 Ra3+ 70.Kf2 Ra6 71.Rb5 h4 72.Kf3 Ra4 73.Rc5 Ra2 74.Rc4 Kg5 75.Rc5+ Kf6 76.Rc4 Kg5 77.Rc5+ Kf6 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nd2 c5 4.exd5 exd5 5.Ngf3 Nf6 6.Bb5+ Bd7 7.Bxd7+ Nbxd7 8.O-O Be7 9.dxc5 Nxc5 10.Nb3 Ne6 11.Nbd4 O-O 12.Re1 Nxd4 13.Qxd4 Re8 14.Be3 Qc7 15.c3 Bd6 16.g3 Re4 17.Qd2 Rae8 18.Bd4 Rxe1+ 19.Rxe1 Ne4 20.Qd3 a6 21.Kg2 Qc6 22.Be3 h5 23.Nd4 Qa4 24.a3 g6 25.Nc2 h4 26.Nb4 Bxb4 27.axb4 Qc6 28.Rd1 hxg3 29.hxg3 d4 30.cxd4 Qd5 31.f3 Nf6 32.Bd2 g5 33.Rf1 Kg7 34.Kg1 g4 35.fxg4 Nxg4 36.Rf5 Re5 37.Rf4 f5 38.Qf3 Qxf3 39.Rxf3 Re2 40.Bc3 Kg6 41.d5 Re3 42.Kg2 Re2+ 43.Kf1 Re3 44.Kg2 Re2+ 45.Kf1 Re3 46.Kg2 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.e4** **g6** 2.d4 Bg7 3.Nf3 d6 4.Nc3 Nf6 5.Be2 Nc6 6.d5 Nb8 7.O-O c6 8.Re1 O-O 9.h3 b6 10.Nd4 Bb7 11.a4 a6 12.Bf3 Qc7 13.Bf4 c5 14.Nb3 Nbd7 15.Be2 Ne5 16.Bg3 Rfe8 17.Nd2 e6 18.Bxe5 dxe5 19.dxe6 Rxe6 20.Bc4 Ree8 21.Qe2 Bh6 22.Rad1 Rad8 23.Nf3 a5 24.h4 Qe7 25.Bb3 Bc6 26.g3 Kg7 27.Bc4 Rf8 28.Nd5 Bxd5 29.Bxd5 Rd6 30.Rd3 Rfd8 31.Bc4 Rxd3 32.Bxd3 Kg8 33.Bc4 Kg7 34.Kg2 Qc7 35.c3 Rd7 36.Bd5 Qd6 37.Rd1 Qe7 38.Bc6 Rxd1 39.Qxd1 Qc7 40.Bd5 Qd6 41.Qd3 Qc7 42.Bc4 Qe7 43.Bb3 Bc1 44.Qc2 Bh6 45.Bc4 Kf8 46.Qb3 Qc7 47.Bd5 Kg7 48.Qc2 Qe7 49.Bb3 Qc7 50.Bc4 Qd6 51.Kg1 Ng4 52.Ng5 Qe7 53.Qd1 Bxg5 54.Qxg4 Bf6 55.Qc8 Qd8 56.Qc6 Be7 57.Kg2 Bd6 58.Bd5 Bc7 59.Kf1 Qe7 60.Ke2 Qd8 61.Kd3 Qe7 62.f3 Bd8 63.Qc8 Kf8 64.Kc4 Qe8 65.Bc6 Qe7 66.Kb5 h6 67.Qd7 Bc7 68.Qxe7+ Kxe7 69.Bd5 Bd8 70.Kc6 h5 71.Bc4 f5 72.exf5 gxf5 73.f4 exf4 74.gxf4 Kf6 75.Kd7 Be7 76.Kc7 Kg6 77.Kxb6 Kf6 78.Kxa5 Bd8+ 79.Kb5 Ke7 80.Kc6 Ba5 81.Be2 Kd8 82.Bxh5 Bc7 83.Bg6 Ba5 84.h5 Ke7 85.h6 Kf6 86.Bxf5 Bd8 87.Kxc5 Kxf5 88.h7 Be7+ 89.Kd5 Bf6 90.a5 Kxf4 91.a6 Kf5 92.a7 Be5 93.a8=Q Bg7 94.h8=Q Bxh8 95.Qxh8 Kf4 96.Qh3 Kg5 97.Ke5 Kg6 98.Ke6 Kg7 99.Qh5 Kg8 100.Kf6 Kf8 101.Qf7# 1-0

**1.e4** **Nf6** 2.e5 Nd5 3.d4 d6 4.c4 Nb6 5.exd6 cxd6 6.a4 a5 7.Nf3 g6 8.b3 Nc6 9.Nc3 Bg7 10.Be3 Bg4 11.Nb5 d5 12.Rc1 Nb4 13.Be2 O-O 14.O-O Rc8 15.c5 Nd7 16.Bg5 Na2 17.Ra1 Nb4 18.h3 Bf5 19.Nd6 Bc2 20.Qd2 Rb8 21.Nb5 Nf6 22.Qc1 Ne4 23.Bh6 Rc8 24.Bxg7 Kxg7 25.Qb2 Bd3 26.Ne5 Bxe2 27.Qxe2 e6 28.Nd3 Nc6 29.Qe3 h5 30.Rfe1 Rh8 31.Kh2 h4 32.Kg1 Qf6 33.Rab1 Rh5 34.b4 axb4 35.Nxb4 Na5 36.Rbc1 Qg5 37.Qxg5 Rxg5 38.Rc2 Ra8 39.Ra2 Rh5 40.Rb1 Rhh8 41.Nd3 Nc4 42.f3 Ng3 43.Nd6 b6 44.cxb6 Nxd6 45.a5 Rhb8 46.Nc5 Nc4 47.Nd7 Rd8 48.b7 Rxa5 49.Rxa5 Nxa5 50.b8=Q Ne2+ 51.Kf2 Rxb8 52.Rxb8 Nxd4 53.Ne5 g5 54.Rc8 Kf6 55.Ng4+ Kg7 56.Ne5 Kf6 57.Ng4+ Kg7 58.Ne5 1/2-1/2 {three-fold repetition}

**1.Nf3** Nf6 2.c4 b6 3.g3 e6 4.Bg2 Bb7 5.d4 Be7 6.O-O O-O 7.Re1 d5 8.cxd5 exd5 9.Nc3 Nbd7 10.Bf4 c5 11.e3 Ne4 12.h4 Ndf6 13.dxc5 Nxc3 14.bxc3 Bxc5 15.Qb3 Ne4 16.Ne5 Qe7 17.Rad1 Qe6 18.Bxe4 dxe4 19.Qxe6 fxe6 20.Nd7 Rfc8 21.Nxc5 Rxc5 22.Rd7 Ba6 23.Re7 Bd3 24.g4 Ra5 25.Ra1 Rd8 26.Kg2 h6 27.Rxe6 Kf7 28.Rc6 Bb5 29.Rc7+ Rd7 30.Rxd7+ Bxd7 31.Kg3 Be6 32.a3 g5 33.Bd6 gxh4+ 34.Kxh4 Kg6 35.Rg1 Rd5 36.Bb8 Ra5 37.Kg3 Rxa3 38.Rb1 Ra4 39.Rd1 Ra3 40.Rd6 Kf6 41.Rc6 Ra2 42.c4 Ra4 43.c5 Ra1 44.Kf4 Rf1 45.cxb6 Rxf2+ 46.Kxe4 axb6 47.Rxb6 Kf7 48.Bf4 Bxg4 49.Rxh6 Ra2 50.Bc7 Ra4+ 51.Ke5 Be2 52.Bb6 Rg4 53.Kf5 Rg6 54.Rh7+ Kg8 55.Rb7 Ba6 56.Rb8+ Kf7 57.Bd4 Rh6 58.Kg5 Rd6 59.Kf4 Rh6 60.Ke4 Rh4+ 61.Kd5 Rh5+ 62.Be5 Rh4 63.Rb2 Bc4+ 64.Kd6 Re4 65.Rf2+ Kg6 66.Bd4 Re8 67.Rf6+ Kg5 68.Rf4 Re6+ 69.Kc5 Bb3 70.Rf3 Ba4 71.Kc4 Bc6 72.Rf4 Be4 73.Rf8 Kg6 74.Bc5 Rf6 75.Re8 Kf5 76.Kd4 Bc6 77.Rc8 Rg6 78.Rf8+ Rf6 79.Rh8 Kg4 80.Kd3 Kf3 81.Rh3+ Kg4 82.Rh7 Kf3 83.Rh1 Be4+ 84.Kd4 Ra6 85.Rh4 Ra4+ 86.Kc3 Bc6 87.Rxa4 Bxa4 88.Kd4 Bd1 89.e4 Bb3 90.Ba3 Ke2 91.e5 Bd1 92.e6 Ba4 93.e7 Bb5 94.Kc5 Be8 95.Bb2 Kf3 96.Be5 Ke4 97.Bc3 Bg6 98.Bd4 Bh5 99.Kc4 Kf3 100.Ba1 Ke3 101.Bb2 Kd2 102.Kb3 Ke1 103.Ba1 Kd1 104.Ka3 Ke2 105.Bb2 Ke1 106.Kb4 Kf1 107.Ba1 Ke1 108.Bf6 Kf1 109.Ka3 Ke2 110.Bc3 Ke3 111.Bb4 Kf2 112.Kb2 Ke2 113.Kc3 Be8 114.Bd6 Kf3 115.Kb4 Bh5 116.Bh2 Ke3 117.Bg3 Kd2 118.Kc5 Kc2 119.Be5 Kb3 120.Bf4 Kb2 121.Kb4 Ka2 122.Be5 Kb1 123.Bf6 Kc1 124.Kc5 Kd1 125.Bg5 Ke1 126.Kd4 Kf1 127.Bc1 Kg1 128.Kc5 Kf1 129.Be3 Ke1 130.Kb4 Ke2 131.Bc1 Ke1 132.Ba3 Kf1 133.Bb2 Ke1 134.Ba1 Kd2 135.Bg7 Kc1 136.Bf8 Kc2 137.Kc5 Kc1 138.Kb6 Kc2 139.Bg7 Kb3 140.Kc6 Be8+ 141.Kc7 Kc4 142.Kd8 Ba4 143.e8=Q Bxe8 144.Kxe8 Kb3 145.Kd8 Kc2 146.Ke7 Kb1 147.Kd6 Ka2 148.Kc5 Kb3 149.Be5 Kc2 150.Kd4 Kb1 151.Kd3 Ka2 152.Bd4 Kb3 153.Bc3 Ka2 154.Kc2 Ka3 155.Bb2+ Ka4 156.Bc1 Kb5 157.Kb3 Kc6 158.Be3 Kd6 159.Bf4+ Kc5 160.Bg3 Kc6 161.Be1 Kb5 162.Bc3 Kc6 163.Kc4 Kd7 164.Bb2 Ke6 165.Kb5 Kf5 166.Bc3 Ke4 167.Ka4 Kd3 168.Be1 Kc2 169.Bb4 Kd1 170.Kb5 Kc1 171.Ba3+ Kb1 172.Kc4 Ka1 173.Kb3 Kb1 174.Bb4 Kc1 175.Bd6 Kd1 176.Bh2 Ke2 177.Bg1 Ke1 178.Kc2 Ke2 179.Bb6 Kf3 180.Kd3 Kg4 181.Kc4 Kf3 182.Ba5 Ke2 183.Kc3 Kf1 184.Bb4 Kg2 185.Kc4 Kf2 186.Kd3 Kf1 187.Ke3 Kg2 188.Bd2 Kg3 189.Be1+ Kg4 190.Ke4 Kg5 191.Bd2+ Kg6 192.Ke5 Kf7 193.Bg5 Kg7 194.Kf5 1/2-1/2 {fifty move rule}

## Thursday, May 05, 2016

### [hvdgtxse] Reducing a multiplayer game to 2 players

A multiplayer game can easily be reduced to a 2 player game by having each physical player operate multiple player roles in the game. If any one of your player roles wins, you win.

It helps if there is no imperfect information (hidden information), but not strictly necessary.

Of course, it changes the nature of the game a lot, with player roles collaborating.

## Tuesday, May 03, 2016

### [ilapbunp] Education as a publicly funded investment

Time point X: education institution keeps records of who it has enrolled, including demographic records of each student. Country keeps demographic records of which demographic groups are currently earning what income (census and income tax records).

Time point Y, 45 years later: Lifetime income of each individual can be calculated, and demographic income distribution can be compared with the income distribution at time point X. For demographic groups which have increased in relative income earning rate compared to time X, the educational institution that had enrolled them at time point X is awarded a prize proportional to the growth, imaginable as a portion of the GDP growth that would not have occurred had they not been the educators.

Educational institutions are thus incentivized to think capitalistically: seek out underserved demographics which will offer the most bang for the buck, for which education will cause the most growth in income earning.

It may also provide incentive to define new demographic categories: the growth of a narrowly defined especially underserved demographic is not diluted by less growth of a more broadly defined demographic.

Weird unintended consequences might occur, especially since battling over proportion of income distribution is a zero-sum game.

45 years is a very long investment term, but the financial markets will figure it out.

Originally conceived just for primary education, because children don't have control over their education decisions. Adults in secondary education seem to have incentives to maximize the benefit of their education. Nevertheless, should the proposed scheme also be deployed for secondary education?

### [iriveymg] Error correcting email addresses

Create an email domain whose addresses contain error correcting code information. It is not defeated by bad handwriting or other transcription errors. Easiest is probably addresses that contain only digits, including check digits.

Need to publicize a method with which a sender can detect and correct errors in a corrupted address.

Ambitiously, deploy the idea to much more than just the username part of an email address. An entire URL. Federated system with many possibly error correcting codes, perhaps some able to correct more errors. Would need to redo DNS.

### [qqqyxqta] Balkanize

If left to their own devices, humans naturally balkanize, perhaps breaking down into tribes of less than 100.

Is this true?

It takes something special to prevent it. What, if anything, works? Inspired by Christianity.

Identify the ways you have balkanized.

### [xmeejiwi] Altering scanned text

Create software that makes it easy to take an digital image with text and modify the text in it. Detect and match font, synthesize and fill in small amounts of background as necessary.

Inspired by Facebook requiring someone to submit proof of their pseudonym.

Continuing the arms race: devise methods to print text onto objects so that the text is difficult to alter. Difficult to synthesize backgrounds. Difficult to match fonts.

Cryptographic signatures encoded as a bar code might work, though possibly tricky if multiple people conspire to help someone, including someone who actually has the fake name.

### [tafhuact] Average speed of public transportation door to door

What is the average speed, say, as the crow flies from door to door, for someone taking public transportation?

Things like automated Segway might beat it.

### [ghdvbeuq] 4 chord Prelude

Adapt Bach's Prelude in C Major (Well-Tempered Clavier) to arbitrary chord patterns, including the famous patterns that appear in popular music, e.g., 12-bar blues or I-V-vi-IV.

### [illbfbqv] Bad review rate

How many bad reviews a product or service has is made more interesting, and useful, by knowing the total number of sales or customers, so the rate of bad reviews. These numbers are available, though often concealed.

Also interesting is the total number of reviews as a proportion of total sales. This can signal that reviews are being manipulated, perhaps good reviews (or bad reviews) being purchased.

### [iojfevfn] Gradients in psychedelic art

Characteristics of psychedelic art: bright colors, curves, gradients between very different colors, e.g., blue to yellow.

Made famous in images of fractals like the Mandelbrot set.

### [caqemrro] Game animation as rules

Move-by-move animations of a collection of go 囲碁 games could explain the rules fairly well, in case communication is difficult. The game should be played out until all the dame are filled. The final frame could have all the captured territories filled in, making it clear that the objective of the game is to maximize area. With difficulty, an observer of the animation can discover the ko rule, that certain moves are forbidden even though they seem otherwise advantageous. Komi could be depicted as extra white stones off to the side at the beginning of the game, or added at the end, or could be omitted: with great difficulty an observer could discover that black seeks to win by a margin that is not 0.

Chess could be illustrated similarly, though it seems an inherently more complicated game. 13 different pixel colors, including blank. It is also a little bit difficult to illustrate who won (even if the game is played out to checkmate), or that the game was a draw.

### [pvnveski] Assault weapon

We explore the concept of "assault" in the phrase "assault weapon" in the context of how "assault" (the threat of force) is legally distinguished from "battery" (the use of force).

On one hand, almost any gun, say, semi-automatic gun, communicates a threat of force, as perceived in the fear of those seeing it. Does an assault weapon induce significantly more fear than any other such gun, analogous to some actions and some speech are deemed to cause a criminally high amount of fear, so become assault?

On the other hand, there are likely contexts in which assault weapons do no cause fear at all; perhaps the local population considers the weapon normal. In such a case, the weapon ought not be classified "assault". Following such a line of reasoning, criminal liability for such weapons would depend on their context. But this would make it difficult or impossible to regulate them at their point of sale.

### [shkrbydm] Distinctive bass line

Transcribe the bass line of Lake Street Dive's cover of "I Want You Back". What other songs have such distinctive bass lines?

### [ekhqcnmh] Kirk wakes up

Kirk hits his head when boarding the new recruit shuttle in the J.J. Abrams Star Trek reboot. Everything that happens afterwards is just a dream.

### [vddqvvpj] Profanity and children

The way a person uses profanity is difficult to change, how they use language when not thinking about it, so therefore becomes a social class marker. Social class markers have lifelong effects, so, assuming this model is correct, parents are justifiably concerned about what profanity their kid learns. But there is a feeling of wasted effort in training the child merely to appear a certain way for their best chances in society, rather than the expending that effort toward more substantive education.

Vaguely related, a person's awkwardness about sex (which is the subject of much profanity) is a social class marker.

### [kvjowhee] Automated music analysis for education

Given a musical song, automatically analyze it to determine all its musical characteristics, e.g., styles. Deconstruction. Inspired by various rhythmic musical styles. This seems relatively straightforward with machine learning, though analogous to the difficult object recognition problem (in a complicated scene) in machine vision.

Various companies, Pandora, Google, have tried this in hopes of suggesting more music that a person will like, but have found it is not too effective. Collaborative filtering works better.

The new tack is instead to provide it intended as a teaching tool: find me more examples of this musical "thing", an educational tool to help people compose more music.

Generalize the idea to automatically analyzing other genres of art. Text, i.e., literary fiction. 2D paintings and photographs. Movies (training examples could be tropes enumerated in TvTropes), though we also want things like cinematic techniques like camera work if the tool is to educate filmmakers.

### [iswzbowh] Pi controversies

The Greek letter pi is involved in two mathematical controversies.

Lowercase pi is pitted against the one legged lowercase tau as the constant describing the circle.

Uppercase pi is pitted against one legged uppercase gamma as the continuous extension of the factorial function.

Vaguely relatedly, uppercase pi signifying product lives in harmony with uppercase sigma signifying sum. Similarly lowercase pi and sigma for molecular electron orbitals.

### [nbzmviyz] Forcing monoculture

The Soviets tried very hard to eliminate multiculturalism, on the assumption that monoculture creates a better, more governable state, seemingly so observed in other countries.

Income redistribution, banning of religion, single language, standardized and universal education, forced migration, mass imprisonment (gulag), pogroms, and mass executions.

On the face of it, it did not work, as seen in the breakup of the Soviet Union, as well as the many subsequent conflicts. This is surprising, as the state was virtually unlimited in what it could do to induce monoculture.

Did they do it wrong? Was there a better way? Was it simply that they were not in power long enough?

If the measures done there were not effective, it calls into question similar policies being currently pursued for similar reasons in other countries: e.g., income redistribution to decrease social conflict, increased access to education to decrease social conflict.

### [dzubaucb] Taking one for the team

One curious human behavior is going out of your way to hurt someone, even taking actions which may hurt yourself when being lazy is an alternative. For example, bullying, even in the face of prohibitions and punishment for bullying. It seems irrational.

Hypothesize the behavior is social, in particular, a way of furthering the group to which one feels a membership even if it is at a cost to oneself: taking one for the team. Often, the group in question is rather vague, perhaps a social class.

How does the feeling of group membership develop?

We can measure the strength of group membership by measuring the willingness to take one for the team.